Download Air Force Combat Fundamentals AFTTP 3-3.8 PDF

TitleAir Force Combat Fundamentals AFTTP 3-3.8
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Table of Contents
                            AFTTP 3-3.8 Combat Fundamentals—GUARDIAN ANGEL and Special Tactics Forces
	Preface
	Table of Contents
	List of Figures
	List of Tables
	CH 1 INTRODUCTION
		1.1 Overview.
			1.1.1 General.
			1.1.2 Specifics.
		1.2 Purpose
		1.3 Contents.
		1.4 Responsibilities and Discipline
			1.4.1 Commanders.
			1.4.2 Weapons and Tactics Personnel.
			1.4.3 Operators.
		1.5 Security
			1.5.1 Distribution X.
			1.5.2 Reproduction.
		1.6 Change Procedures
	CH 2 MISSION PREPARATION
		2.1 General
		2.2 Operational Cycle.
			2.2.1 Predeployment.
			2.2.2 Deployment and Stand-Up Planning.
			2.2.3 Employment.
			2.2.4 Stand-Down and Redeployment Planning.
			2.2.5 Postdeployment.
		2.3 Specific PR/RO Planning Guides and Considerations.
			2.3.1 Mission Commander Planning.
			2.3.2 Personnel Recovery Coordination Center Planning.
			2.3.3 Battlestaff and Liaison Planning.
		2.4 Considerations for Immediate Surface Operations
			2.4.1 Opportunity for Success.
			2.4.2 Control/Coordination Agencies.
			2.4.3 Notification.
			2.4.4 Recovery Teams.
			2.4.5 Assets and Capability.
			2.4.6 Recovery.
			2.4.7 Location.
			2.4.8 Authentication.
			2.4.9 Extraction.
			2.4.10 Mission Termination.
		2.5 Pararescue Team Leader Specific Considerations.
			2.5.1 Team Leader Checklist.
			2.5.2 Receive and Study the Operation.
			2.5.3 Plan Use of Time.
			2.5.4 Study Terrain and Situation.
			2.5.5 Make Tentative Plan.
			2.5.6 Select and Organize the Recovery Team, Weapons, and Equipment.
			2.5.7 Issue a Warning Order.
			2.5.8 Coordination.
			2.5.9 Make Reconnaissance.
			2.5.10 Complete Detailed Plan.
			2.5.11 Issue the Operations Order.
			2.5.12 Briefback.
			2.5.13 Briefback the Command Releasing Authority.
			2.5.14 Supervise (At all Times), Inspect, Rehearse.
			2.5.15 Include Provisions for Test Firing all Weapons.
		2.6 SERE Specialist Specific Mission Planning Considerations.
			2.6.1 Documents.
			2.6.2 Qualification and Training.
			2.6.3 Concept of Employment.
			2.6.4 PR Operational Support Duties at Home Unit.
			2.6.5 PR Duties while Deployed.
			2.6.6 SERE Program Manager.
			2.6.7 Sere Specialist Assigned to a Unit Other Than the JPRC/PRCC (i.e., flying unit, joint ground unit, coalition unit, rescue squadron, or SOF/OGA).
			2.6.8 Evasion Plan of Action Guide.
			2.6.9 Evasion Plan of Action.
			2.6.10 Isolated Personnel Report (DD Form 1833) Guidance.
			2.6.11 SERE Specific Mission Planning/Execution Tools Terminology.
	CH 3 GENERAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS
		3.1 Airmanship
		3.2 General.
			3.2.1 Responsibilities.
			3.2.2 Crew Coordination/ Duties.
			3.2.3 Aircraft Communications.
			3.2.4 Interphone.
			3.2.5 Common Crew Terminology.
			3.2.6 Voice Procedures.
			3.2.7 Disabling of Aircraft Systems and Destruction of Classified.
		3.3 Alternate Loading Operations.
			3.3.1 Alternate Loading Methods.
			3.3.2 Restraining Devices.
		3.4 Aircraft Marshalling.
		3.5 Aircraft Egress.
		3.6 Pararescue/CRO Duties.
			3.6.1 En Route Operations.
			3.6.2 Objective Area Threat Assessment and Control.
		3.7 Vertical Lift Operations.
			3.7.1 Pre-Mission.
			3.7.2 Pararescue Minimum Force.
			3.7.3 Time Warnings and Alternate Insertion Extraction Preparation.
			3.7.4 Vertical Lift Transload Procedures.
			3.7.5 Combat Search and Rescue Terminal Area Operations.
			3.7.6 Individual/Team Equipment.
		3.8 Fixed-Wing (FW) Operations
			3.8.1 General.
		3.9 Fixed-Wing Airborne Operations.
			3.9.1
			3.9.2
		3.10 Aerial Delivery
			3.10.1 Special Equipment.
		3.11 Airland Operation.
			3.11.1 Engine Running On-Load/Off-Load.
			3.11.2 Combat Loading.
			3.11.3 Recovery and Transload.
			3.11.4 Patient Treatment.
			3.11.5 Forward Arming and Refueling Point.
		3.12 Aircraft and Airfield Security
			3.12.1 Security Element Procedures.
			3.12.2 Basic Plan for all Fixed-Wing Aircraft.
	CH 4 INSERTION/EXTRACTION OPERATIONS
		4.1 General.
		4.2 Alternate Loading.
			4.2.1 Restraining Devices.
			4.2.2 Equipment.
		4.3 Contingencies and Emergency Procedures.
		4.4 Alternate Insertions and Extractions.
			4.4.1 Time Calls.
			4.4.2 Rope Deployment.
		4.5 AIE Master.
		4.6 General Setup and Preparation.
		4.7 Rope Ladder.
			4.7.1 Setup and Preparation.
			4.7.2 Installation.
			4.7.3 Etrier Assist.
			4.7.4 Caving Ladder.
			4.7.5 Advantages.
			4.7.6 Disadvantages.
		4.8 Rappel.
			4.8.1 Setup and Preparation.
			4.8.2 Installation.
			4.8.3 Rope Diameter.
			4.8.4 Deployment Bag.
			4.8.5 Personal Equipment.
			4.8.6 Deployment Preparation.
			4.8.7 Hook Up.
			4.8.8 Rope Deployment.
			4.8.9 Rope Retrieval.
			4.8.10 Contingencies and Emergency Procedures.
			4.8.11 Advantages.
			4.8.12 Disadvantages.
		4.9 Short Haul.
			4.9.1 Setup and Preparation.
			4.9.2 Execution.
			4.9.3 Contingencies and Emergency Procedures.
			4.9.4 Advantages.
			4.9.5 Disadvantages.
		4.10 Fast Rope.
			4.10.1 Setup and Preparation.
			4.10.2 Installation.
			4.10.3 Time Warnings.
			4.10.4 Unsafe Drift or Premature Lift Off.
			4.10.5 Fastroping With Combat Equipment.
			4.10.6 Night Deployments.
			4.10.7 NVG Overwater Operations.
			4.10.8 Advantages.
			4.10.9 Disadvantages.
			4.10.10 Extractions Using Fast Rope Insertion Extraction System.
		4.11 Hoist Operations.
			4.11.1 Primary Rescue Device.
			4.11.2 Climbing Harness.
			4.11.3 Forest Penetrator.
			4.11.4 Rescue Seat.
			4.11.5 Stokes Litter.
			4.11.6 Tag Line.
			4.11.7 Rescue Basket.
			4.11.8 Rescue Net.
			4.11.9 Rescue Strop (Horse Collar).
			4.11.10 Quick Strop.
			4.11.11 Execution.
			4.11.12 Water Hoist Operations.
			4.11.13 Free-Fall Swimmer Deployment.
			4.11.14 Predeployment Considerations.
			4.11.15 Aircraft Procedures.
			4.11.16 Deployment Procedures.
			4.11.17 Safety Considerations.
		4.12 Special Patrol Insertion/Extraction System.
			4.12.1 Planning.
			4.12.2 Setup and Preparation.
			4.12.3 Installation.
			4.12.4 Land Operating Procedures.
		4.13 Rapid Equipment Delivery System and Equipment.
			4.13.1 REDS Container/Contents Inspection/Storage Requirements.
		4.14 Tethered Duck Operations.
			4.14.1 Set Up and Preparation.
		4.15 Helicopter Freefall Equipment Delivery.
			4.15.1 Preparing Raft for Drop.
			4.15.2 Delivery Procedures.
			4.15.3 Safety Procedures.
		4.16 Kangaroo Duck Operations.
			4.16.1 Equipment Installation and Configuration.
			4.16.2 CRRC Preparation.
		4.17 Soft Duck Procedures.
			4.17.1 Construction of the Soft Duck and Platform.
			4.17.2 Loading the Soft Duck in the Aircraft.
			4.17.3 Deployment Procedures.
			4.17.4 De-Rigging the Soft Duck.
		4.18 Vehicle On/Off Loading.
			4.18.1 Preparation/Infiltration.
			4.18.2 Preparation/Exfiltration.
	CH 5 PARACHUTE OPERATIONS
		5.1 General.
			5.1.1 Regulatory Guidance Overview.
			5.1.2 Recovery Considerations.
			5.1.3 Operational Risk Management.
			5.1.4 Insertion Considerations.
			5.1.5 Exit Altitudes.
			5.1.6 Drop Zone Elevation.
			5.1.7 Surface Winds.
			5.1.8 Drop Zone Conditions.
			5.1.9 Parachute Types.
			5.1.10 Coordination for Airdrop.
			5.1.11 Ram Air Static Line.
			5.1.12 Free-Fall.
			5.1.13 The ML-4 kit or Pararescue Flotation.
		5.2 Land Parachute Deployment Procedures.
			5.2.1 Prepare to Land.
			5.2.2 Landing.
			5.2.3 Equipment Release Procedures.
			5.2.4 Delivery Containers.
		5.3 Rescue Jumpmaster Procedures.
			5.3.1 Terms and Definitions.
			5.3.2 General Responsibilities.
		5.4 Airdrop Release Methods.
			5.4.1 Computed Air Release Point.
			5.4.2 High Altitude Release Point.
			5.4.3 Ground Marking Release System.
			5.4.4 Verbally Initiated Release System.
			5.4.5 Wind Streamer Vector Count.
			5.4.6 Other Airdrop Methods.
		5.5 Jumpmaster Directed Drops.
			5.5.1 Sight Alignment.
			5.5.2 Head Alignment.
			5.5.3 Movement.
			5.5.4 Location.
			5.5.5 Jumpmaster Release.
			5.5.6 Fixed (Normal) Target Pattern.
			5.5.7 Moving Target Pattern.
		5.6 General Jumpmaster Information/Requirements
		5.7 Chief, Standardization Certifier/Evaluator (Stan/Eval) Responsibilities.
		5.8 Static Line Aircraft Deployment Procedures.
			5.8.1 HH-60 Aircraft.
			5.8.2 C-130 Aircraft.
			5.8.3 HC-130 Aircraft.
		5.9 Free-Fall Deployment Procedures.
			5.9.1 C-130 Aircraft.
			5.9.2 H-1 Aircraft.
			5.9.3 H-60 Aircraft.
			5.9.4 Other Aircraft.
			5.9.5 Visual Meteorological Conditions Restrictions.
			5.9.6 Deployment to a Vessel.
			5.9.7 Spotting and Aerial Delivery-Crosswind Procedures.
		5.10 High Altitude/High Opening.
			5.10.1 DZ Limitations.
			5.10.2 Weather.
			5.10.3 Altitudes.
		5.11 Container Ramp Loads.
			5.11.1 Building.
			5.11.2 Loading.
			5.11.3 Deploying/Exit.
			5.11.4 Watercraft.
	CH 6 AERIAL DEPLOYMENT EQUIPMENT
		6.1 Purpose.
		6.2 Types of Airdrops.
			6.2.1 Low-Velocity Airdrop.
			6.2.2 High-Velocity Drop.
			6.2.3 High-Speed/Low-Level Aerial Delivery System.
			6.2.4 Free-Fall Airdrops.
			6.2.5 Cushioning Materials for Aerial Delivery Loads.
		6.3 Methods of Airdrops.
			6.3.1 Door Loads.
			6.3.2 Wing Loads.
			6.3.3 Gravity-Release Loads.
			6.3.4 Extraction Loads.
			6.3.5 External Transport Loads.
		6.4 Cargo Parachutes.
			6.4.1 General.
			6.4.2 Routine Inspection.
			6.4.3 Parachute Types.
			6.4.4 Poncho Expedient Parachute.
			6.4.5 Packaging and Deploying.
		6.5 Aerial Delivery Containers.
		6.6 Aerial Delivery Equipment.
			6.6.1 A-7A Cargo Sling.
			6.6.2 A-21 Cargo Bag Assembly.
			6.6.3 A-22 Cargo Bag Assembly.
		6.7 Aerial Delivery Operational Restrictions.
		6.8 Aerial Delivery Procedures.
			6.8.1 General.
			6.8.2 Airdrop Patterns.
		6.9 Water Equipment Delivery.
		6.10 Night Equipment Delivery.
		6.11 Tree Let Down Sling.
			6.11.1 Rope Length.
			6.11.2 Knot Type.
			6.11.3 Remaining Rope.
			6.11.4 Running Ends.
		6.12 Crew Coordination
		6.13 Surface-Directed Equipment Delivery.
			6.13.1 Comm.
			6.13.2 Reference Points.
			6.13.3 Release Point.
			6.13.4 Coordination.
			6.13.5 Ground Marked Release System.
			6.13.6 Verbal Initiated Release System.
		6.14 Fuel.
			6.14.1 One-Gallon Cans.
			6.14.2 Small Cans.
			6.14.3 Shipping Requirements.
			6.14.4 Labelling.
			6.14.5 Storage.
	CH 7 COMBAT MARKSMANSHIP AND MUNITIONS
		7.1 Purpose.
		7.2 General.
		7.3 Safety.
		7.4 Mindset.
		7.5 Moving, Shooting, and Communicating.
		7.6 Moving Targets.
		7.7 Terminal Ballistics.
			7.7.1 Slews and Cavities.
			7.7.2 M-16 Information.
			7.7.3 Better Performance.
			7.7.4 Special Ball.
			7.7.5 Handguns Versus Rifles.
		7.8 Training Concepts.
			7.8.1 Marksmanship.
			7.8.2 Rifleman.
			7.8.3 Advanced Carbine Training.
			7.8.4 Designated Marksman.
			7.8.5 Marksmanship Definition.
			7.8.6 Arms Configuration.
			7.8.7 DM Training.
			7.8.8 Target Types.
			7.8.9 Long-Range Anti-Personnel.
			7.8.10 Range Safety Officer Duties.
			7.8.11 Night Shooting.
			7.8.12 Sighting in IR Lasers.
			7.8.13 Advanced Carbine Training.
	CH 8 ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS
		8.1 Desert Combat Operations.
			8.1.1 Environmental Considerations.
			8.1.2 Climate.
			8.1.3 Life Forms.
			8.1.4 Environmental Effects on Equipment and Personnel.
			8.1.5 Tactical Vehicle in the Desert.
			8.1.6 Vehicle Lessons Learned.
			8.1.7 Driving Techniques.
			8.1.8 Driving Environment.
			8.1.9 Operations.
		8.2 Maritime Combat Operations.
			8.2.1 Environmental Considerations.
			8.2.2 Environmental Effects on Equipment.
		8.3 Jungle Combat Operations.
			8.3.1 Purpose.
		8.4 Urban Combat Operations.
			8.4.1 Environmental Considerations.
			8.4.2 Military Operations on Urbanized Terrain.
			8.4.3 Operations.
		8.5 Mountain Combat Operations.
			8.5.1 Mountain Operations.
			8.5.2 Alpine Operations.
			8.5.3 Environmental Considerations.
			8.5.4 Environmental Effects on Equipment and Personnel.
			8.5.5 Operations.
		8.6 Cold Weather Combat Operations.
			8.6.1 Purpose.
			8.6.2 Terrain and Weather.
			8.6.3 Environmental Effects on Equipment and Personnel.
		8.7 CBRNE Combat Operations.
			8.7.1 NBC Warfare.
			8.7.2 Environment.
		8.8 Environmental Considerations.
			8.8.1 Urban Areas.
			8.8.2 Desert Areas.
			8.8.3 Low Terrain, Temperate Zone Areas.
			8.8.4 Mountain Areas.
			8.8.5 Jungle Areas.
			8.8.6 Cold Weather Regions.
			8.8.7 Special Precautions Checklist.
			8.8.8 Maritime Environments and Riverine Areas.
			8.8.9 Atmospheric Environments.
			8.8.10 Deployment Decisions.
			8.8.11 Potential Threats.
	CH 9 MARITIME OPERATIONS
		9.1 Purpose.
		9.2 Surface Search, Rescue, and Recovery Operations.
			9.2.1 Water Hoist Rescue Techniques.
			9.2.2 In-Water Survivor Approaches, Carries, and Releases.
			9.2.3 In-Water Rescue Breathing.
			9.2.4 In-Water Cervical and Spinal Stabilization.
			9.2.5 Uncooperative Survivor in Water.
			9.2.6 Wet Rock Rescue.
			9.2.7 Surf Rescue.
		9.3 Small Boat Operations.
			9.3.1 Load Planning.
			9.3.2 Equipment Configuration.
			9.3.3 Outboard Motor Familiarization.
			9.3.4 Boat-Based Search Operations.
			9.3.5 Boat Rescue Operations.
			9.3.6 CRRC Recovery by Large Vessels.
		9.4 Underwater Search, Rescue, and Recovery Operations.
			9.4.1 Equipment Considerations and Techniques for Adverse Conditions.
			9.4.2 Diving Personnel.
			9.4.3 Communication and Line Signals.
			9.4.4 Search Operations.
			9.4.5 Rescue Operations.
			9.4.6 Recovery Operations.
			9.4.7 Overhead Environments.
			9.4.8 Contaminated Water.
	CH 10 TECHNICAL RESCUE/RECOVERY OPERATIONS
		10.1 Introduction.
		10.2 Physics Principles.
			10.2.1 Intended Scope.
			10.2.2 Historical Background.
			10.2.3 Technical Merit.
		10.3 Safety.
			10.3.1 Rescuer Safety.
			10.3.2 Elements.
			10.3.3 Checklist.
			10.3.4 Technical Rope Rescue.
			10.3.5 Rescue Necessities.
			10.3.6 Safety Definitions.
			10.3.7 New Descriptive Name.
			10.3.8 Deprecated Unit.
			10.3.9 Rope in Service.
			10.3.10 Fall Factor.
			10.3.11 Rope Stretch and Rope Strength.
		10.4 Command.
			10.4.1 Operational Risk Management.
		10.5 Control.
			10.5.1 Individual Responsibilities.
		10.6 Communications.
			10.6.1 Lowering Operations.
			10.6.2 Raising Operations.
			10.6.3 Communications Checklists.
		10.7 The Science of Rope Rescue.
			10.7.1
			10.7.2
			10.7.3
			10.7.4
			10.7.5
			10.7.6
			10.7.7 The Physics Behind the Techniques.
			10.7.8 Definitions.
			10.7.9 Dynamic Force Calculations.
			10.7.10 Pulley Systems and Mechanical Advantage.
			10.7.11 Summary of Simple Pulley Systems Principles.
			10.7.12 Compound Pulley Systems.
			10.7.13 Summary of Compound Pulley System Principles.
			10.7.14 Complex Pulley Systems.
			10.7.15 Vector Angles.
			10.7.16 The Tension-Method for Pulley Systems.
			10.7.17 Litter Raises and Lowers on Slopes.
			10.7.18 Ropes for Rescue Work.
			10.7.19 Accessory Cord.
			10.7.20 Care and Maintenance of Accessory Cords.
			10.7.21 Types of Webbing.
			10.7.22 Pulleys.
			10.7.23 Carabiners.
			10.7.24 Descenders.
			10.7.25 Belaying Devices.
			10.7.26 Rigging Plates.
			10.7.27 Knots and Hitches.
			10.7.28 Basic and End-of-Rope Knot.
			10.7.29 Anchor Choices.
			10.7.30 Components of a Rescue System.
			10.7.31 Equipment Lists.
		10.8 Snow, Ice, and Glacier Operations.
			10.8.1 Crevasse Travel and Rescue.
			10.8.2 Introduction.
			10.8.3 Definitions.
			10.8.4 Glacier Terms:
			10.8.5 Avalanche Terms.
			10.8.6 Runout Angle.
			10.8.7 Settling, Settlement.
			10.8.8 Slope Cut.
			10.8.9 Sympathetic Trigger.
			10.8.10 Terrain Trap.
			10.8.11 Trigger.
			10.8.12 Weak Layer.
			10.8.13 Whoompf.
			10.8.14 Wind Loading.
			10.8.15 Windward.
			10.8.16 Gearing Up For Travel.
			10.8.17 Rope Techniques.
			10.8.18 Tying into the System.
			10.8.19 Tying in the Sled.
			10.8.20 Tying in the Back-Pack.
			10.8.21 Tying in Snow-Shoes and Skis.
			10.8.22 Traveling Techniques.
			10.8.23 Rope Management.
			10.8.24 Route Selection.
			10.8.25 Crossing Crevasses.
		10.9 Confined Space and Collapsed Structure.
			10.9.1 Introduction to Confined Space and Structural Collapse.
			10.9.2 General Tactical Considerations.
			10.9.3 Confined Space Rescue.
			10.9.4 Structural Collapse Rescue.
			10.9.5 Final Recommendations.
		10.10 Extrication Techniques and Equipment.
			10.10.1 General.
			10.10.2 General Tactical Considerations.
			10.10.3 Extrication Techniques and Equipment.
			10.10.4 Extrication Capability.
		10.11 Nuclear, Biological, Chemical and Explosives.
			10.11.1 General.
			10.11.2 Unknown and Reactionary Environments.
			10.11.3 Known Environments.
			10.11.4 Tactical Considerations.
			10.11.5 Specific NBC and Explosive Considerations.
			10.11.6 Decontamination Operations.
			10.11.7 NBC Casualty Processing and Handling Techniques.
			10.11.8 Casualty Decontamination Considerations.
			10.11.9 Patient Decontamination at a Medical Facility.
		10.12 Swift Water Rescue.
		10.13 Tree Recovery Procedures.
			10.13.1 General.
			10.13.2 Tree Climbing.
			10.13.3 Using Tree Climbing Equipment.
			10.13.4 Recovery of Personnel Suspended in Trees.
	CH 11 INDIVIDUAL COMBAT SKILLS AND EQUIPMENT
		11.1 General.
		11.2 Purpose.
		11.3 Tactical Clothing and Individual Combat Equipment.
		11.4 Tactical Clothing.
		11.5 Individual Combat Equipment.
			11.5.1 Durability and Functionality.
			11.5.2 Fighting Load.
			11.5.3 Load Bearing Equipment.
			11.5.4 Rucksack.
			11.5.5 Sleep Gear.
			11.5.6 Food and Water.
			11.5.7 Communications Equipment.
			11.5.8 Night Vision Devices.
			11.5.9 Influencing Factors.
			11.5.10 Individual Combat Equipment Levels.
			11.5.11 Essential Elements.
		11.6 Cover and Concealment.
			11.6.1 Artificial and Natural Cover.
			11.6.2 Natural Concealment.
			11.6.3 Individual Concealment Techniques.
		11.7 Environmental Camouflage, Cover and Concealment Considerations.
			11.7.1 Desert Environment.
			11.7.2 Urban Environment.
			11.7.3 Mountain Environment.
			11.7.4 Cold Weather Environment.
			11.7.5 Jungle Environment.
		11.8 Fundamentals of Movement.
			11.8.1 General Rules.
			11.8.2 The Rush.
		11.9 Crawling Maneuvers
			11.9.1 High Crawl.
			11.9.2 Low Crawl.
		11.10 Stealth Walking.
			11.10.1 Body Position.
			11.10.2 Toe First Method.
			11.10.3 Heel First Method.
		11.11 Combat Tracking
			11.11.1 Qualities of a Tracker.
			11.11.2 Tracking Terminology:
			11.11.3 Tracking Team Composition and Formation.
			11.11.4 Concepts of Tracking.
			11.11.5 Analyzing Footprints.
			11.11.6 Weathering.
			11.11.7
		11.12 Tactical River and Stream Crossing.
			11.12.1 Fording.
			11.12.2 Swimming.
			11.12.3 Rope Bridges.
			11.12.4 Inflatable Raft.
			11.12.5 Improvised Rafts.
			11.12.6 Vegetation Raft.
			11.12.7 Boats.
		11.13 Navigation
			11.13.1 Purpose.
			11.13.2 Maps.
			11.13.3 Watches.
			11.13.4 Lensatic Compass.
			11.13.5 Silva Compass.
			11.13.6 Wrist Compass.
			11.13.7 Altimeter Used as a Compass Aid.
			11.13.8 Pace Count.
			11.13.9 Six-Point Navigation Checklist.
			11.13.10 Checklist.
			11.13.11 Global Positions System.
			11.13.12 Waypoints.
			11.13.13 GPS Properties.
			11.13.14 Transmitting Coordinates.
		11.14 Navigation.
			11.14.1 Desert Environment Considerations.
			11.14.2 Jungle Environment Navigation.
			11.14.3 Cold Weather Environment Navigation.
			11.14.4 Urban Environment.
			11.14.5 Mountain Environment.
		11.15 Combatives.
			11.15.1 Purpose.
			11.15.2 General.
	CH 12 REINTEGRATION OPERATIONS
		12.1 General.
			12.1.1 Reintegration Preparation.
			12.1.2 Planning Considerations.
			12.1.3 General Debriefing Guidance.
			12.1.4 Combat Rescue Officer/SERE Specialist Responsibilities.
			12.1.5 Reintegration Phases.
			12.1.6 After-Action.
	ATCH 1 GLOSSARY OF REFERENCES AND SUPPORTING INFORMATION
		A1.1 References
		A1.2 Abbreviations and Acronyms
		A1.3 Terms
	ATCH 2 REINTEGRATION CHECKLISTS AND DEBRIEFING GUIDE
		A2.1 Introduction
	ATCH 3 DEBRIEFING GUIDE FOR PR OPERATIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

COMBAT
FUNDAMENTALS

UNCLASSIFIED // FOUO

UNCLASSIFIED // FOUO

BY ORDER OF THE
SECRETARY OF THE AIR FORCE

3-3.8

AIR FORCE TACTICS,
TECHNIQUES, AND PROCEDURES

GUARDIAN ANGEL and
Special Tactics Forces (U)

1 July 2006

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AFTTP 3-3.8, 1 July 2006 9-45

9.3.5.1.3 Suspected hypothermia victims should always be recovered gently and
horizontally to reduce the chance of rapid blood pressure drop.

9.3.5.1.4 Treat all immersed survivors for hypothermia.

9.3.5.1.5 Recover survivors who are without flotation aid before those with flotation.

9.3.5.1.6 Recover survivors without hypothermia protection before those with
hypothermia protection.

9.3.5.1.7 Interview all survivors at the earliest opportunity to determine whether
others are in the water and were seen.

9.3.5.1.8 In cases of locating multiple PIW, provide temporary flotation during
recovery operations. Employ aircraft life rafts to act as a floating collection point for
triage and recovery staging.

9.3.5.1.9 If the RV is acting as an overhead search platform, it can vector the team to
the PIWís location by marking the position where the PIW is between the team and the
RV. The team in the CRRC steers towards the RV which will eventually lead them to
the PIW.

9.3.5.1.10 Do not leave the scene until you are sure that all survivors have been
recovered and the component RCC concurs.

9.3.5.2 Methods of Recovery. Two broad categories of recovery methods exist. Direct
methods involve direct contact between the team and the survivors, while indirect methods
involve the use of various devices to assist the recovery. Indirect rescue methods should be
used first. When all indirect methods have failed, use direct methods to execute the
recovery. When you need to rely on a direct method, ensure that the team member
attempting the recovery is familiar with possible hazards (e.g., panicked survivor grabbing
the rescuer, or cold water) and have him configured as required to conduct these recovery
methods. Indirect methods to recover survivors in the water involve the use of various
pieces of equipment. The usual methods of recovery for GUARDIAN ANGEL recovery
teams conducting boat based rescues generally involve the use of throw lines.

9.3.5.2.1 Survivor Removal from the Water. Removing a helpless or unconscious
survivor from the water and onto a CRRC can be a challenging task. The CRRC poses
a challenge, though low in the water, that the buoyancy tube is much wider than a rail
in a standard boat, causing the team member to have to reach far out to pull the
survivor on board.

9.3.5.2.1.1 Unconscious Survivor Lift. Every attempt will be made to recover
unconscious survivors with a floatable spine board. The following is an alternative
procedure for removing an unconscious survivor from the water into a CRRC:

9.3.5.2.1.1.1 Positions the survivor as close as possible to the side of the boat
to limit how far you have to reach. To keep from falling overboard, the rescuer
keeps a center of gravity well within the boat.

9.3.5.2.1.1.2 Keeping low, position the survivor facing away from the boat.

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9-46 AFTTP 3-3.8, 1 July 2006

9.3.5.2.1.1.3 Reach under the survivorís arms so arms are between the
survivor and the boat. This limits the amount of friction between the survivor
and the boat.

9.3.5.2.1.1.4 Grasp the survivor tightly and lift with your legs. It may be of
use to wiggle the survivor side to side slightly, thereby lifting each side in
increments.

9.3.5.2.1.1.5 When you can brace your elbows on the top of the boatís side,
use your legs to lift the survivor until his/her waist is at the rail.

9.3.5.2.1.1.6 Gently lower the survivor to the deck or take a step back into the
boat pulling the survivor further inside the boat.

9.3.5.2.1.1.7 If more than one team member is available to lift, it will help to
use a short length of webbing to give them something to lift with. Starting
again with the survivorís back to the boat, pass the webbing under one arm,
around the chest, and under the other arm. Cross the ends of the webbing
behind the survivor. Each team member will haul up on the end of the webbing
until the survivor is in the boat.

9.3.5.2.1.2 Bounce Lift. It may be possible to use the survivorís buoyancy to get
them onboard the boat. Upon reaching the boat, secure the survivor to the boat and
climb aboard. You can secure the survivor by keeping one hand constantly pinning
the survivors. The survivor is then freed and turned to face the boat. Push the
survivor low in the water, about chin level, and then aggressively pull on the victim
up. This will often bring the survivorís torso over the edge of the boat.

9.3.5.2.1.3 Roll-Up Nets and Straps. Some CRRC may be equipped with these
devices which attach the inboard portion of the device to the inside of the buoyancy
tube and the rest of the device drapes into the water. The survivor is positioned on
his back in the water and then pulled across the net or straps. The team reaches to
the outboard edge of the net and pulls it back up to the boat. As the team hauls the
net aboard, the victim will roll up in the net or straps and up to the top of the
buoyancy tube. At this stage the survivor is removed from the net or strap and
gently lowered by hand to the deck.

9.3.5.2.1.4 Hoisting from CRRC. Once a survivor is recovered they should not
be placed back into the water to facilitate hoisting. Rotor wash from RVs will push
a stationary CRRC around necessitating the survivor to be hoisted out while
underway. The RV may have to deploy a Stokes basket to the team prior to
conducting the hoist. To assist the hoisting process, do the following:

9.3.5.2.1.4.1 Change the CRRCs course to the wind on the bow, preferably on
the port bow. The RV aircraft commander sits in the starboard side of the
helicopter which helps to give the pilot the best view of the CRRC. (See
Figure 9.20, Hoisting from CRRC Underway.)

9.3.5.2.1.4.2 Reduce speed to ease the CRRCís motion but continue to remain
underway.

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AFTTP 3-3.8
UNCLASSIFIED//FOUO

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