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Page 1

ISBN-3-934584-69-1 The Bosch Yellow Jackets Edition 2003 Expert Know-How on Automotive Technology Automotive Electrics/Automotive ElectronicsOrder Number 1 987 722 128 AA/PDT-09.03-En


The Program Order Number ISBN

Automotive Electrics/Automotive Electronics
Motor-Vehicle Batteries and Electrical Systems 1 987 722 143 3-934584-71-3
Alternators and Starter Motors 1 987 722 128 3-934584-69-1
Automotive Lighting Technology, Windshield
and Rear-Window Cleaning 1 987 722 176 3-934584-70-5
Automotive Sensors 1 987 722 131 3-934584-50-0
Automotive Microelectronics 1 987 722 122 3-934584-49-7

Diesel-Engine Management
Diesel-Engine Management: An Overview 1 987 722 138 3-934584-62-4
Electronic Diesel Control EDC 1 987 722 135 3-934584-47-0
Diesel Accumulator Fuel-Injection System
Common Rail CR 1 987 722 175 3-934584-40-3
Diesel Fuel-Injection Systems
Unit Injector System/Unit Pump System 1 987 722 179 3-934584-41-1
Distributor-Type Diesel Fuel-Injection Pumps 1 987 722 144 3-934584-65-9
Diesel In-Line Fuel-Injection Pumps 1 987 722 137 3-934584-68-3

Gasoline-Engine Management
Emissions-Control Technology
for Gasoline Engines 1 987 722 102 3-934584-26-8
Gasoline Fuel-Injection System K-Jetronic 1 987 722 159 3-934584-27-6
Gasoline Fuel-Injection System KE-Jetronic 1 987 722 101 3-934584-28-4
Gasoline Fuel-Injection System L-Jetronic 1 987 722 160 3-934584-29-2
Gasoline Fuel-Injection System Mono-Jetronic 1 987 722 105 3-934584-30-6
Ignition Systems for Gasoline Engines 1 987 722 130 3-934584-63-2
Gasoline-Engine Management:
Basics and Components 1 987 722 136 3-934584-48-9
Gasoline-Engine Management:
Motronic Systems 1 987 722 139 3-934584-75-6

Safety, Comfort and Convenience Systems
Conventional and Electronic Braking Systems 1 987 722 103 3-934584-60-8
ESP Electronic Stability Program 1 987 722 177 3-934584-44-6
ACC Adaptive Cruise Control 1 987 722 134 3-934584-64-0
Compressed-Air Systems for Commercial
Vehicles (1): Systems and Schematic Diagrams 1 987 722 165 3-934584-45-4
Compressed-Air Systems for Commercial
Vehicles (2): Equipment 1 987 722 166 3-934584-46-2
Safety, Comfort and Convenience Systems 1 987 722 150 3-934584-25-X
Audio, Navigation and Telematics in the Vehicle 1 987 722 132 3-934584-53-5

The up-to-date program is available on the Internet at:

• Generation of electrical energy and

vehicle electrical systems
• Basic physical principles
• Equipment versions for passenger cars

and commercial vehicles
• Quality management
• Workshop testing techniques

Alternators and
Starter Motors

Page 2

Published by:
© Robert Bosch GmbH, 2003
Postfach 1129,
D-73201 Plochingen.
Automotive Aftermarket Business Sector,
Department AA/PDT5.
Product Marketing, Diagnostics &
Test Equipment.

Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Horst Bauer.

Editorial staff:
Dipl.-Ing. Karl-Heinz Dietsche,
Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Thomas Jäger.

Dipl.-Ing. Reinhard Meyer (Alternators),
Dr.-Ing. Hans Braun (Starter),
Dipl.-Ing. Rainer Rehage
(Service technology),
Holger Weinmann
(Testing technology for alternators and starters),
and the editorial team in cooperation with
the responsible technical departments at
Robert Bosch GmbH.

Unless otherwise indicated, the above are
employees of Robert Bosch GmbH, Stuttgart.

Reproduction, duplication and translation of this
publication, either in whole or in part, is permis-
sible only with our prior written consent and
provided the source is quoted.
Illustrations, descriptions, schematic diagrams
and the like are for explanatory purposes and
illustration of the text only. They cannot be used
as the basis for the design, installation, or speci-
fication of products. We accept no liability for
the accuracy of the content of this document
in respect of applicable statutory regulations.
Robert Bosch GmbH is exempt from liability,
Subject to alteration and amendment.

Printed in Germany.
Imprimé en Allemagne.

1st edition, September 2003.
English translation of the 1st German edition
dated: October 2002

� Imprint

Robert Bosch GmbH

Page 53


Due to the use of particularly wear-resistant
components, the alternators installed in trucks
and buses for instance achieve mileages of
200,000...600,000 km. One prerequisite is
that they are equipped with suitable ball
bearings which, for instance, feature en-
larged grease chambers.
Provided the alternator is installed in a loca-
tion which is relatively free from dirt, oil, and
grease, the carbon-brush wear is negligible
due to the low excitation currents involved.

Alternators Operation in the vehicle 51

The history of the generator/alternator�

At the turn of the century, the introduction
of electrical lighting to motor vehicles to take
the place of the previously used horse-and-
carriage lighting meant that a suitable source
of electrical power had to be available in the
vehicle. The battery alone was completely un-
suitable since, when discharged, it had to be
removed from the vehicle for re-charging.
Around 1902, Robert Bosch designed a light-
ing dynamo (which came to be called a “gen-
erator”) which essentially comprised a stator,
an armature with commutator, and a contact
breaker for the ignition (see below). The only
difficulty here, though, was the fact that the
dynamo’s voltage was dependent on the en-
gine’s speed which varied consideraby.

Endeavours, therefore, concentrated on the
development of a DC dynamo with voltage
regulation. Finally, electromagnetic control of
the field resistor as a function of the machine’s
output voltage proved to be the answer.
Around 1909, using the knowledge available
at that time, it thus became possible to build a
complete “Lighting and Starting System for
Motor Vehicles”. This was introduced to the
market in 1913 and comprised a dynamo
(splashwater-protected, encapsulated 12-V
DC dynamo with shunt regulation and a rated
power of 100 W), a battery, a voltage-regula-
tor and switching box, a free-wheeling starter
with pedal-operated switch, and a variety of
different lighting components.






Robert Bosch GmbH

Page 54

Before an internal-combustion engine can
operate independently and generate its own
power output, it requires assistance to start
it. It needs a certain degree of momentum
before the torque produced by the ignition
stroke is sufficient to overcome the resis-
tance of the exhaust, induction and com-
pression strokes. In addition, when an engine
is first started, the bearings are not properly
lubricated so that high levels of friction have
to be overcome. In short, the process of start-
ing an internal-combustion engine is one
that requires a large amount of force.

of starting systems
Manual starting methods
On January 29, 1886, the inventor Carl Benz
registered his motor carriage, a new type of
road-going vehicle driven by a gasoline engine,
with the German Imperial Patent Office.

In August 1888, his wife Berta Benz and
their two sons embarked on their legendary
and courageous journey from their home in
Mannheim in the south of Germany to
Pforzheim. It was the first-ever journey across
country in the history of the automobile
(Figure 1). As this excursion took place with-
out the knowledge of her husband, push-start-
ing was almost certainly the only way that
Berta Benz could get the three-wheeler car
going. Carl Benz himself would have been

able to start it by spinning the flywheel.
But it is doubtful whether his wife or the
two boys would have had the physical strength
required to start the engine in that way.

For many years after Berta Benz’ daring jour-
ney, muscle power remained the chief source
of energy for starting the internal-combustion
engine. Whether by push-starting, spinning
the flywheel or using a crank handle, starting
a motor car required physical exertion and
often a good deal of sweat. No wonder, then,
that from an early stage, engineers began to
look for an easier method of getting the en-
gine going.

Right from the early days of the Twentieth
Century, the inventive efforts of numerous
engineers were devoted to this problem.
An enormous variety of starting devices was
thought up, including spring-loaded, com-
pressed-air, hydraulic and inertia starters
(Figure 2).

The electric starter motor
The development of the electric starter motor
was a major breakthrough. However, its effec-
tive use depended on the availability of a suf-
ficiently powerful battery. Lead-acid accumu-
lator batteries with sufficient capacity started
to be produced around 1910, which meant that
from then on nothing more stood in the way
of the spread of the electric starter motor.

52 Starter motors Development of starting systems

Starter motors

Berta Benz tests out her husband’s invention (source: DaimlerChrysler Classic, Group Archive)1






Robert Bosch GmbH

Page 105

Hybrid regulators, 32

Installation, 47
Interference-suppression measures,

Iron losses, 41

Liquid cooling, 39
Liquid-cooled, windingless-rotor
compact alternator (LIF), 28

Loss distribution in an alternator, 41

Mechanical losses, 41
Mileages and maintenance intervals,

Minimum starting temperature, 58
Monolithic regulators, 33
Multifunctional voltage regulators, 33
Multiplate overrunning clutch, 71-101

nA Cutting-in speed, 43
Noise, 40
Notes on operation, 49

Open-flank belt, 48
Operating sequence of the starter
motor, 54

Operation of alternators in parallel, 45
Overrunning clutch, 71
Overrunning clutches, 71
Overvoltage, 34
Overvoltage in vehicle electrical
system, 34

Overvoltage protection, 34
Overvoltage-protection devices
(only for 28-V alternators), 35

Overvoltage-protection devices,
non-automatic, 35

Overvoltage-protection devices,
automatic, 36

Permanent-magnet motor, 63
Permanent-magnet motor with flux
concentrators, 66

Pinion engagement, 54
Pinion-engaging mechanism, 74
Poly-V belt, 49
Power circuit, 89
Power diodes, 44
Power losses, 41

Power requirements, 5
Pre-control relay, 82
Pre-excitation circuit, 14
Pre-excitation on alternators with
multifunctional voltage regulator, 15

Preconditions for starting, 56-101
Principle of operation of the alternator,
–, 3-phase AC, 10

Production (starter motors), 94

Quality management, 91
Quality standards, 94

Radial-tooth overrunning clutch, 73
Rectification of the AC voltage, 11
Rectifier circuits, 12
Rectifier diode, 11
Rectifier diodes, 13
Rectifier losses, 41
Reduction of alternator noise, 40
Reduction-gear starter motors, 67
Reduction-gear starter motors for cars,

Regulation of excitation current, 17
Repairing the starter motor, 101
Requirements to be met by automotive
generators, 8

Residual, 10
Reverse-current block, 12
Ribbed-V belt, 48
Roller-type overrunning clutch, 71

Self-excitation, 10
Series D78 direct-drive starter motor,

Series-wound motor, 64
Service AWN, 96
Service technology, 96
Single-element double-contact
regulator, 30

Single-element, single-contact
regulator, 30

Solenoid switch, 69
Sources of power loss, 41
Standard-range compact-diode-
assembly alternators G1, K1, and N1,

Star connection, 10
Starter motors, 52-101
Starter motors for commercial
vehicles, 79

Starter motors with pre-engaged starter
pinion engagement mechanism
incorporating motor-assisted pinion
rotation, 85

Starter motors with pre-engaged starter
pinion engagement mechanism in-
corporatingmechanical pinion rotation,

Starter-motor batteries, 90
Starter-motor control, 88
Starter-motor design, 62
Starter-motor design variations, 76
Starter-motor main circuit, 62
Starter-motor power cables, 89
Starter-motor type designations, 76
Starter-motor types, 76
Starting and overrunning, 56
Starting the internal-combustion
engine, 54

Suppressor diode, 37

Technology of electrical starting
systems, 88

Terminal “W”, 45
Test technology, 96
Testing systems for starter motors,

Testing technology for alternators, 98
The alternator’s circuits, 14
Third harmonic, 45
Transistor regulator using hybrid
technology, 32

Turning the engine, 54
Type B (LIC-B) Compact alternators,

Type designation, 43
Type DT1 compact-diode-assembly
alternators, 24

Type E and P (LI-E and LI-P) compact
alternators, 25

Type EL hybrid regulator, 33
Type HEF109-M starter motor for
commercial vehicles, 83

Type HEF95-L starter motor for
commercial vehicles, 80

Type LIC compact alternators, 24
Type N3 compact-diode-assembly
alternators, 27

Type RE86 and HE(F)95 starter
motors for commercial vehicles, 80

Type T1 compact-diode-assembly
alternators, 24

Type TB/TF pre-engaged starter
motor, 87

Type U2 salient-pole collector-ring
alternators, 29

Index of technical terms 103

Robert Bosch GmbH

Page 106

Type X (LI-X) compact alternators, 26
Types of protection, 34

V-belt, 48
Vehicle electrical system, 6
Voltage regulation, 17
Voltage-regulator characteristic, 18
Voltage-regulator versions, 30-37

Windingless rotor, 27
Windingless-rotor alternators without

collector rings, 26

Zener diodes, 13

AWN: Asanetwork Werkstattnetz
CAD: Computer Aided Design
ESI: Electronic Service Informations
FEM: Finite Elements Method
FMEA: Failure Modes and Effects

ppm: parts per million
VDA: Verband der Deutschen Auto-

mobilindustrie (German Automobile
Industry Federation)

104 Index of technical terms Abbreviations

Robert Bosch GmbH

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