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TitleAphg Full Notes
Tags Human Migration Race And Ethnicity In The United States Census English Language Folklore
File Size260.1 KB
Total Pages44
Table of Contents
                            Ch. 1 Thinking Geographically
	Ch. 3 Migration
	Ch. 4 Folk and Pop Culture
	Ch. 5 Language
	Ch. 6 Religion
	Ch. 10 Agriculture
		Pastoral nomadism-  a form of subsistence ag based on the herding of domesticated animals.  Primarily practiced in the large belt of arid and semiarid land that includes north Africa, the Middle East, and parts of Central Asia.  About 15 million people are pastoral nomads; they sparsely occupy 20% of Earth’s land surface.
		The animal that the nomad chooses to herd depends on the climate, and on cultural preferences.  Some nomads practice transhumance- the seasonal migration of livestock betwixt mountains and lowland pasture areas.  The future of pastoral nomadism is grim, as govt. increasingly confine the nomads to areas that cannot be irrigated or that lack valuable raw materials.
		Intensive subsistence ag- the form of ag used in areas of high density such as East, South, and Southeast Asia.  It is characterized by high efficiency farming practices that yield a large number of crops per small amount of land.  The intensive ag in Asia is subdivided into “wet rice dominant” and “wet rice not dominant”.   Aside from the obvious difference in what is grown, the two classifications are quite similar.  They each use the land intensively, primarily using human power with some animal and hand tool assistance.  In some regions, crop rotation may be practiced, as well as double cropping- obtaining two harvests from one field in one year.
	Ch. 11 Industry
	Ch. 12 Services
	Ch. 13 Urban Patterns
                        
Document Text Contents
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Census tract- urban areas that contain approx 5,000 residents and try to correspond to
neighborhood boundaries.

European and less developed cities typically follow the same models, only the direction of
increasing wealth is reversed. The rich cluster downtown and the poor are
banished to the outskirts. Many LDC cities show this trend because they were
founded by European colonists who simply imposed their urban planning upon
whatever city they chose.

Squatter settlements- the outskirts of many LDC cities where the poor are clustered. These
settlements often lack running water, schools, electricity, mass transit, or any
other service that one would expect in a city.

Key Issue 3: Why do inner cities have distinctive problems?

Filtering- the process of subdividing homes by successive waves of increasingly lower-
income people.

Redlining- the practice of some banks of drawing lines on a map to identify areas in which
they will refuse to loan money.

Urban renewal- the process in which cities identify blighted inner-city neighborhoods,
acquire the property from private owner, “relocate” the residents, clear the site,
build new infrastructure, and develop it into a new business district or park area;
effectively developing it so well that the property value is too high for the original
tenants to stay, and they must move to another area.

Public housing- government supported housing in which the low-income tenants must pay
~30% of their income for rent with the government covering the other costs not
paid for by rent. Accounts for 2% of all dwellings in the U.S; the numbers differ
in Europe.

Gentrification- the process by which middle-class people move into deteriorated inner-city
neighborhoods and renovate the housing. These people are often attracted by the
cheap housing, proximity to CBD, and availability of city amenities. This process
also results in the raising of property values beyond the range of many of the low-
income residents who are required to move out.

Underclass- common term referring to inner-city residents because they are trapped in an
unending cycle of economic and social problems.

Annexation- the process of legally adding land area to a city.

Many low-income inner-city residents lack job skills because they never completed high
school, and few low-skilled jobs remain downtown, most having moved out to
their customers in the suburbs. About 3 million Americans are homeless, most
roaming through the cities. Because some inner-city residents are unable to
escape the cycle of poverty, they turn to crime, drugs, and/or other illegal
behavior to make ends meet.

The concentration of low-income residents in the inner-city, with most of the middle and
upper classes in the suburbs, has left city governments with extreme financial
problems. Without a strong tax base, many governments are unable to fund
schools or other social programs that would help end the underclass cycle, thus

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