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TitleBachelor Thesis: Pronouns from Different Perspectives
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Table of Contents
                            1. INTRODUCTION TO PRONOUNS
	1.1 Preface
	1.2 Content words and function words
	1.3 A short introduction about pronouns’ use
2. TYPE OF PRONOUNS IN ENGLISH AND ITALIAN
	2.1 Pronouns categories
	2.2 Personal pronouns
		2.2.1 Subject pronouns
		2.2.2 Object pronouns
	2.3 Absolute pronouns
	2.4 Reflexive pronouns
	2.5 Reciprocal pronouns
	2.6 Possessive pronouns
	2.7 Demonstrative pronouns
	2.8 Indefinite pronouns
	2.9 Relative pronouns
	2.10 On which pronoun types will be the focus?
3. HISTORY OF ENGLISH PERSONAL PRONOUNS
	3.1 Why taking into account the history of personal pronouns?
	3.2 The modern personal pronouns’ ancestors: Old English pronouns
	3.3 Changes that affect pronouns which move away from Old English pronoun paradigm
		3.3.1 Scandinavian borrowings in the third-person plural pronoun
		3.3.2 The appearance of its and you in Middle English
		3.3.3 The translations of the Bible during the Renaissance and the change from thou to you
	3.4 When the phenomena of null dummy subject and pro-drop began to appear
	3.4 Summary and discussion about subject personal pronouns’ etymology
4. SYNTAX OF PRONOUNS
	4.1 Why focusing on how pronouns combine with other words
	4.2 An overview of X-bar theory
	4.3 Pronouns in the X-bar theory
	4.4 The clausal substituted by it and the pseudocomplement
	4.5 C(onstituent)-command
	4.6 What is the binding theory
	4.7 The binding condition A
	4.8 The binding condition B
	4.9 The binding condition C
	4.10 Binding vs Coreference
	4.11 Conditions of syntactic and semantic binding
5.PRONOUNS FROM THE PSYCHOLINGUISTICS PERSPECTIVE
	5.1 Words’ retrieving and lexical representation in bilinguals
	5.2 Priming effect applied to pronouns
	5.3 Structural effects concerning pronoun reference
	5.4 Interface in bilingualism due to pronouns between Greek, Russian and German, with English
	5.5 Syntactic attrition for near-native Italian (L2) in interpreting sentences with pronouns
List of symbols and abbreviations:
References:
	Bibliography:
	Sitography
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

Corso di Laurea in Mediazione Linguistica e
Comunicazione Letteraria

PRONOUNS FROM DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES

Relatore Laureando
Prof. Roberto Zamparelli Pietro Viviani

Anno Accademico 2011/2012

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1. INTRODUCTION TO PRONOUNS ............................................................................... 3

1.1 PREFACE ................................................................................................................................ 3
1.2 CONTENT WORDS AND FUNCTION WORDS ................................................................................... 3
1.3 A SHORT INTRODUCTION ABOUT PRONOUNS’ USE ......................................................................... 4

2. TYPE OF PRONOUNS IN ENGLISH AND ITALIAN ................................................. 5

2.1 PRONOUNS CATEGORIES ........................................................................................................... 5
2.2 PERSONAL PRONOUNS .............................................................................................................. 5
2.2.1 SUBJECT PRONOUNS .............................................................................................................. 6
2.2.2 OBJECT PRONOUNS ............................................................................................................... 8
2.3 ABSOLUTE PRONOUNS ........................................................................................................... 11
2.4 REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS .......................................................................................................... 12
2.5 RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS ........................................................................................................ 14
2.6 POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS ......................................................................................................... 15
2.7 DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS .................................................................................................. 16
2.8 INDEFINITE PRONOUNS ........................................................................................................... 18
2.9 RELATIVE PRONOUNS ............................................................................................................. 19
2.10 ON WHICH PRONOUN TYPES WILL BE THE FOCUS? ................................................................... 21

3. HISTORY OF ENGLISH PERSONAL PRONOUNS .................................................. 21

3.1 WHY TAKING INTO ACCOUNT THE HISTORY OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS? ......................................... 21
3.2 THE MODERN PERSONAL PRONOUNS’ ANCESTORS: OLD ENGLISH PRONOUNS ................................ 22
3.3 CHANGES THAT AFFECT PRONOUNS WHICH MOVE AWAY FROM OLD ENGLISH PRONOUN PARADIGM . 23
3.3.1 SCANDINAVIAN BORROWINGS IN THE THIRD-PERSON PLURAL PRONOUN ......................................... 23
3.3.2 THE APPEARANCE OF ITS AND YOU IN MIDDLE ENGLISH ............................................................ 24
3.3.3 THE TRANSLATIONS OF THE BIBLE DURING THE RENAISSANCE AND THE CHANGE FROM THOU TO YOU
................................................................................................................................................. 25
3.4 WHEN THE PHENOMENA OF NULL DUMMY SUBJECT AND PRO-DROP BEGAN TO APPEAR .................... 26
3.4 SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION ABOUT SUBJECT PERSONAL PRONOUNS’ ETYMOLOGY ............................ 29

4. SYNTAX OF PRONOUNS ............................................................................................. 31

4.1 WHY FOCUSING ON HOW PRONOUNS COMBINE WITH OTHER WORDS ............................................ 31
4.2 AN OVERVIEW OF X-BAR THEORY ........................................................................................... 31
4.3 PRONOUNS IN THE X-BAR THEORY .......................................................................................... 34
4.4 THE CLAUSAL SUBSTITUTED BY IT AND THE PSEUDOCOMPLEMENT ................................................ 38
4.5 C(ONSTITUENT)-COMMAND ..................................................................................................... 39
4.6 WHAT IS THE BINDING THEORY ............................................................................................... 40
4.7 THE BINDING CONDITION A .................................................................................................... 43
4.8 THE BINDING CONDITION B .................................................................................................... 45
4.9 THE BINDING CONDITION C .................................................................................................... 48
4.10 BINDING VS COREFERENCE ................................................................................................... 49
4.11 CONDITIONS OF SYNTACTIC AND SEMANTIC BINDING ................................................................. 51

5.PRONOUNS FROM THE PSYCHOLINGUISTICS PERSPECTIVE ....................... 53

5.1 WORDS’ RETRIEVING AND LEXICAL REPRESENTATION IN BILINGUALS .......................................... 53
5.2 PRIMING EFFECT APPLIED TO PRONOUNS ................................................................................... 57

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