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TitleEveryday Science To the Point
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Radiotherapy & Chemotherapy

1. Radiation targets only the cancer cells. However, chemotherapy is administered through

the blood and therefore, affects both cancerous and non-cancerous cells

2. Though they can be used for any sort of cancer, radiation mainly targets solid tumours like

those of the cervix, spine and skin.

3. Chemotherapy treats cancers through medicines, while radiation deals with cancer cells

through rays

4. Radiation results in additional side effects like internal inflammation, especially in the

stomach and the intestine.

Springtides & Neap tides

i) Spring Tides When the moon is full or new, the gravitational pull of the moon and sun are


ii) At these times, the high tides are very high and the low tides are very low. This is known

as a spring high tide.

iii) Spring tides are especially strong tides (they do not have anything to do with the season


iv) They occur when the Earth, the Sun, and the Moon are in a line. The gravitational forces

of the Moon and the Sun both contribute to the tides.

v) Spring tides occur during the full moon and the new moon.

Neap tides:

i) Neap Tides During the moon's quarter phases the sun and moon work at right angles,

causing the bulges to cancel each other.

ii) The result is a smaller difference between high and low tides and is known as a neap tide.

iii) Neap tides are especially weak tides.

iv) They occur when the gravitational forces of the Moon and the Sun are perpendicular to

one another (with respect to the Earth).

v) Neap tides occur during quarter moon.

Vertebrates & Invertebrates

• Vertebrates have a backbone with a spinal cord, whereas invertebrates do not.

• The diversity is exceptionally high among the invertebrates compared to vertebrates.

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