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TitleFilm Score
TagsOrchestras Entertainment Performing Arts Tempo Film Score
File Size409.3 KB
Total Pages13
Table of Contents
                            Film score
	Process of creation
			Digital Sequencer
			Written Click Track
	Elements of a film score
		Temp tracks
		Source music
		Academy Award nominees and winners
		Other award nominees and winners
		Box office champions
	Relation with directors
	Production music
	Further reading
	External links
Document Text Contents
Page 1

Film score 1

Film score
A film score (also sometimes called background music or incidental music) is original music written specifically
to accompany a film. The score forms part of the film's soundtrack, which also usually includes dialogue and sound
effects, and comprises a number of orchestral, instrumental or choral pieces called cues which are timed to begin and
end at specific points during the film in order to enhance the dramatic narrative and the emotional impact of the
scene in question.[1] Scores are written by one or more composers, under the guidance of, or in collaboration with,
the film's director and/or producer, and are then usually performed by an ensemble of musicians – most often
comprising an orchestra or band, instrumental soloists, and choir or vocalists – and recorded by a sound engineer.
Film scores encompass an enormous variety of styles of music, depending on the nature of the films they
accompany. The majority of scores are orchestral works rooted in Western classical music, but a great number of
scores also draw influence from jazz, rock, pop, blues, New Age ambient music, and a wide range of ethnic and
world music styles. Since the 1950s, a growing number of scores have also included electronic elements as part of
the score, and many scores written today feature a hybrid of orchestral and electronic instruments.[2]

Since the invention of digital technology and audio sampling, many low-budget films have been able to rely on
digital samples to imitate the sound of live instruments, and many scores are created and performed wholly by the
composers themselves, by using sophisticated music composition software.
Songs are usually not considered part of the film's score,[3] although songs do also form part of the film's soundtrack.
Although some songs, especially in musicals, are based on thematic ideas from the score (or vice-versa), scores
usually do not have lyrics, except for when sung by choirs or soloists as part of a cue. Similarly, pop songs which are
"needle dropped" into a specific scene in film for added emphasis are not considered part of the score, although
occasionally the score's composer will write an original pop song based on his themes, such as James Horner's "My
Heart Will Go On" from Titanic, written for Celine Dion.

Process of creation

The composer usually enters the creative process towards the end of filming, at around the same time as the film is
being edited, although on some occasions the composer is on hand during the entire film shoot, especially when
actors are required to perform with or be aware of original diegetic music. The composer is shown an unpolished
"rough cut" of the film, before the editing is completed, and talks to the director or producer about what sort of music
is required for the film in terms of style and tone. The director and composer will watch the entire film, taking note
of which scenes require original music. During this process the composer will take precise timing notes so that he or
she knows how long each cue needs to last, where it begins, where it ends, and of particular moments during a scene
with which the music may need to coincide in a specific way. This process is known as "spotting".[4]

Occasionally, a film maker will actually edit his film to fit the flow of music, rather than the other way around,
which is the norm. Director Godfrey Reggio edited his films Koyaanisqatsi and Powaqqatsi based on composer
Philip Glass's music.[5] Similarly, the relationship between director Sergio Leone and composer Ennio Morricone
was such that the finale of The Good, the Bad and the Ugly and the films Once Upon a Time in the West and Once
Upon a Time in America were edited to Morricone's score as the composer had prepared it months before the film's
production ended.[6]

In another notable example, the finale of Steven Spielberg's E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial was edited to match the music
of his long-time collaborator John Williams: as recounted in a companion documentary on the DVD, Spielberg gave
Williams complete freedom with the music and asked him to record the cue without picture; Spielberg then re-edited
the scene later to match the music.

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Film score 2

In some circumstances, a composer will be asked to write music based on his or her impressions of the script or
storyboards, without seeing the film itself, and is given more freedom to create music without the need to adhere to
specific cue lengths or mirror the emotional arc of a particular scene. This approach is usually taken by a director
who does not wish to have the music comment specifically on a particular scene or nuance of a film, and which can
instead be inserted into the film at any point the director wishes during the post-production process. Composer Hans
Zimmer was asked to write music in this way in 2010 for director Christopher Nolan's film Inception;[7] composer
Gustavo Santaolalla did the same thing when he wrote his Oscar-winning score for Brokeback Mountain.[8]

When writing music for film, one goal is to sync dramatic events happening on screen with musical events in the
score. There are many different methods for syncing music to picture. These include using sequencing software to
calculate timings, using mathematic formulas and free timing with reference timings. Composers work using
SMPTE timecode for syncing purposes.[9]

When syncing music to picture, generally a leeway of 3-4 frames late or early allows the composer to be extremely
accurate. Using a technique called Free Timing, a conductor will use either (a) a stop watch or studio size stopclock,
or (b) watch the film on a screen or video monitor while conducting the musicians to predetermined timings. These
are represented visually by vertical lines (streamers) and bursts of light called punches. These are put on the film by
the Music Editor at points specified by the composer. In both instances the timings on the clock or lines scribed on
the film have corresponding timings which are also at specific points (beats) in the composer/conductor score.

Digital Sequencer

Using a digital sequencer such as Digital Performer, Logic, or Cubase, composers are able to sync music to picture
with extreme accuracy using SMPTE timecode. Outlined below is one method using Digital Performer:[10]

1.1. Import the video to score into Digital Performer
2.2. Place a marker in the sequencer timeline where you wish to "hit" the event in the scene with music.
3.3. Note the SMPTE timecode (i.e. 01:00:15:23)
4.4. Note the start and end measure (bars+beats), and set it to an exact beat.
5.5. If the "end time" (timecode) field is greyed out, click the options button to open it up.
6.6. Enter the timecode where the downbeat will hit in the "end time" field.
You now will have synchronized an event in the film with a musical event, in time.

Written Click Track

A written click track is a method of writing bars of music in consistent time values (i.e. 4 beats in :02⅔ seconds) to
establish a constant tempo in lieu of a metronome value (e.g. 88 Bpm). A composer would use a written click if they
planned to conduct live performers. When using other methods such as a metronome, the conductor has a perfectly
spaced click playing in his ear which he conducts to. This can yield stiff and lifeless performances in slower more
expressive cues. You can convert a standard BPM value to a written click where X represents the number of beats
per bar, and W represents time in seconds, by using the following equation:

Written clicks are expressed using 1/3 second increments, so the next step is to round the decimal to either 0, 1/3, or
2/3 of a second. The following is an example for 88 BPM:

2.72 rounds to 2.66, so the written click is 4 beats in :02⅔ seconds.

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Film score 6

the movie by Hans Erdmann played at the very beginning and end of the movie. One of the rare occasions on which
music occurs in the movie is a song one of the characters sings, that Lang uses to put emphasis on the man's insanity,
similar to the use of the whistling in M.
Though "the scoring of narrative features during the 1940s lagged decades behind technical innovations in the field
of concert music,"[28] the 1950s saw the rise of the modernist film score. Director Elia Kazan was open to the idea of
jazz influences and dissonant scoring and worked with Alex North, whose score for A Streetcar Named Desire
(1951) combined dissonance with elements of blues and jazz. Kazan also approached Leonard Bernstein to score On
the Waterfront (1954) and the result was reminiscent of earlier works by Aaron Copland and Igor Stravinsky with its
"jazz-based harmonies and exciting additive rhythms."[28] A year later, Leonard Rosenman, inspired by Arnold
Schoenberg, experimented with atonality in his scores for East of Eden (1955) and Rebel Without a Cause (1955). In
his ten-year collaboration with Alfred Hitchcock, Bernard Herrmann experimented with ideas in Vertigo (1958) and
Psycho (1960). The use of non-diegetic jazz was another modernist innovation, such as jazz star Duke Ellington's
score for Otto Preminger's Anatomy of a Murder (1959).


Academy Award nominees and winners
The following list includes all composers who have been nominated for an Academy Award by the Academy of
Motion Picture Arts and Sciences in the Best Original Score category (which, over the years, had gone by a variety
of names, included song scores and arrangements, and been split into awards for scoring in dramas and comedies).
Winners of the Award appear in bold. Note: Composers whose only Oscar nominations came in the Best Original
Song category are not listed, and Best Original Song wins are not counted in the wins tally.

• John Addison (1 win) •• George Fenton • John Leipold (1 win) • Ryuichi Sakamoto (1 win)
•• Larry Adler •• Cy Feuer • John Lennon (1 win) •• Conrad Salinger
•• Peter Herman Adler •• Jerry Fielding •• Alan Jay Lerner •• Hans J. Salter
•• Lynn Ahrens •• Stephen Flaherty •• Joseph J. Lilley •• Buck Sanders
•• Daniele Amfitheatrof •• Lou Forbes •• Andrew Lloyd Webber • Gustavo Santaolalla (2

•• Louis Applebaum •• Ian Fraser •• Frederick Loewe •• Philippe Sarde
•• Robert Armbruster •• Gerald Fried •• Jeremy Lubbock •• Walter Scharf
•• Leo Arnaud • Hugo Friedhofer (1 win) •• Michel Magne • Victor Schertzinger (1

• Malcolm Arnold (1 win) •• Douglas Gamley • Henry Mancini (2 wins) •• Lalo Schifrin
•• Kenny Ascher •• Joseph Gershenson • Dario Marianelli (1 win) • Stephen Schwartz (1 win)
•• Gil Askey • Michael Giacchino (1 win) •• George Martin •• Morton Scott
• Luis Enríquez Bacalov (1

•• Herschel Burke Gilbert •• Muir Mathieson •• Caiphus Semenya

• Burt Bacharach (1 win) •• Philip Glass •• Peter Matz •• Marc Shaiman
•• Constantin Bakaleinikoff •• Lud Gluskin •• Peter Maxwell Davies •• Ravi Shankar
•• Buddy Baker • Ernest Gold (1 win) •• Toshiro Mayuzumi •• Artie Shaw
•• Victor Baravalle • Elliot Goldenthal (1 win) • Paul McCartney (1 win) •• Al Shean
• John Barry (4 wins) • Jerry Goldsmith (1 win) •• Rod McKuen • Richard M. Sherman (1

•• Marco Beltrami • Michael Gore (1 win) •• Bill Melendez • Robert B. Sherman (1 win)
•• Richard Rodney Bennett • Johnny Green (4 wins) • Alan Menken (4 wins) •• Nathaniel Shilkret
• Robert Russell Bennett (1

•• Walter Greene •• Gian-Carlo Menotti • Howard Shore (2 wins)

• Alan Bergman (1 win) •• Peter Greenwell •• Johnny Mercer •• Dimitri Shostakovich
• Marilyn Bergman (1 win) •• Ferde Grofe •• Mahlon Merrick • Leo Shuken (1 win)

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Film score 7

• Elmer Bernstein (1 win) •• Louis Gruenberg •• Michel Michelet • Louis Silvers (1 win)
•• Leonard Bernstein • Dave Grusin (1 win) •• Cyril J. Mockridge •• Alan Silvestri
• Jay Blackton (1 win) •• Vince Guaraldi •• Lucien Moraweck •• Marlin Skiles
•• Chris Boardman •• Jonas Gwangwa •• Angela Morley •• Frank Skinner
• Ludovic Bource (1 win) •• Earle H. Hagen • Giorgio Moroder (1 win) • Paul J. Smith (1 win)
•• Phil Boutelje • Richard Hageman (1 win) •• Jerome Moross •• Herbert W. Spencer
• Leslie Bricusse (1 win) •• Karl Hajos • Ennio Morricone (Honorary

• Ringo Starr (1 win)

•• Bruce Broughton •• Al Ham •• John Morris •• Fred Steiner
•• George Bruns • Marvin Hamlisch (2 win) •• Boris Morros • Max Steiner (3 wins)
• Ralph Burns (2 wins) • Herbie Hancock (1 win) •• Jeff Moss •• Leith Stevens
•• R. Dale Butts • Leigh Harline (1 win) •• Javier Navarrete • Georgie Stoll (1 win)
• David Byrne (1 win) • W. Franke Harling (1 win) •• Anthony Newley • Morris Stoloff (3 wins)
•• Jorge Calandrelli • George Harrison (1 win) • Alfred Newman (9 wins) •• Robert Stolz
•• John Cameron •• Marvin Hatley •• David Newman •• Gregory Stone
•• Gerard Carbonara •• Isaac Hayes •• Emil Newman • Herbert Stothart (1 win)
• Charlie Chaplin (1 win) •• Jack Hayes • Lionel Newman (1 win) • Cong Su (1 win)
• Saul Chaplin (3 wins) • Lennie Hayton (1 win) •• Randy Newman • Harry Sukman (1 win)
• Frank Churchill (1 win) • Ray Heindorf (3 wins) •• Thomas Newman •• Alexander Tansman
•• Cy Coleman •• Charles Henderson •• Jack Nitzsche •• Rod Temperton
•• Anthony Collins • Bernard Herrmann (1 win) • Alex North (Honorary Oscar) •• Max Terr
•• Alberto Colombo •• Jerry Hey •• Edward Paul • Ken Thorne (1 win)
• Bill Conti (1 win) •• Werner Heymann •• Frank Perkins • Dimitri Tiomkin (3 wins)
• Aaron Copland (1 win) •• David Hirschfelder • Nicola Piovani (1 win) •• Ernst Toch
• Carmine Coppola (1 win) •• Joel Hirschhorn •• Edward H. Plumb •• Peter Townshend
•• Frank Cordell •• Samuel Hoffenstein • Rachel Portman (1 win) •• John Scott Trotter
• John Corigliano (1 win) •• Frederick Hollander •• John Powell • Jonathan Tunick (1 win)
•• Alexander Courage • James Horner (1 win) • André Previn (5 wins) • Vangelis (1 win)
•• Andrae Crouch •• James Newton Howard •• Charles Previn •• Tom Waits
• Mychael Danna (1 win) •• Alberto Iglesias • Prince (1 win) •• Don Walker
• Ken Darby (3 wins) •• Mark Isham • A.R. Rahman (1 win) • Oliver Wallace (1 win)
•• John Debney •• Calvin Jackson •• David Raksin •• William Walton
• Georges Delerue (1 win) •• Werner Janssen • Sid Ramin (1 win) • Stephen Warbeck (1 win)
•• Jacques Demy • Maurice Jarre (3 wins) • Raymond Rasch (1 win) •• Edward Ward
•• Alexandre Desplat •• Quincy Jones • Joe Renzetti (1 win) • Ned Washington (1 win)
• Adolph Deutsch (3 wins) • Jan A.P. Kaczmarek (1 win) • Trent Reznor (1 win) • Franz Waxman (2 wins)
•• Frank DeVol • Gus Kahn (1 win) •• Frederic E. Rich •• Kenneth Webb
•• Robert Emmett Dolan • Bronislau Kaper (1 win) • Nelson Riddle (1 win) •• Roy Webb
•• Patrick Doyle •• Fred Karlin •• Hugo Riesenfeld •• Kurt Weill
• Carmen Dragon (1 win) •• Marsha Karlin •• Richard Robbins •• Jerry Wexler
• Anne Dudley (1 win) •• Al Kasha •• Milan Roder •• Matthew Wilder
• Tan Dun (1 win) •• Edward Kay • Heinz Roemheld (1 win) • John Williams (5 wins)
•• George Duning •• Roger Kellaway •• Ann Ronell •• Patrick Williams
• Brian Easdale (1 win) •• Randy Kerber •• David Rose •• Paul Williams
• Roger Edens (3 wins) •• Jerome Kern •• Joel Rosenbaum •• Meredith Willson
•• Hanns Eisler • Erich Wolfgang Korngold (2

• Leonard Rosenman (2 wins) •• Charles Wolcott

•• Danny Elfman • Irwin Kostal (2 wins) •• Laurence Rosenthal •• Albert Woodbury
•• Duke Ellington •• Kris Kristofferson • Atticus Ross (1 win) • Gabriel Yared (1 win)
•• Jack Elliott • Francis Lai (1 win) • Nino Rota (1 win) • Victor Young (1 win)
•• Leo Erdody •• Arthur Lange •• Gennadi Rozhdestvensky • Hans Zimmer (1 win)

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Film score 12

External links
Film music organizations
• Film Music Society (http:/ / www. filmmusicsociety. org/ )
• International Film Music Critics Association (http:/ / filmmusiccritics. org/ )
Film music review sites
• Cinemusic (http:/ / www. cinemusic. net/ ) (
• Filmmusicsite (http:/ / www. filmmusicsite. com) (
• Filmtracks (http:/ / www. filmtracks. com/ ) (
• MainTitles (http:/ / www. maintitles. net/ ) (
• MovieCues (http:/ / www. moviecues. com/ ) (
• Movie Music UK (http:/ / www. moviemusicuk. us/ ) (
• Movie Wave (http:/ / www. movie-wave. net/ ) (
• MusicWeb International: Film Music on the Web (http:/ / www. musicweb-international. com/ film/ index. htm)

(site closed in December 2006 and remains for archive purposes only)
• ScoreNotes (http:/ / www. scorenotes. com/ ) (
• Tracksounds (http:/ / www. tracksounds. com/ ) (
Journals (online and print)
• Film Music Magazine (http:/ / www. filmmusicmag. com/ )
• Film Music Review (http:/ / www. americanmusicpreservation. com/ fmr. htm)
• The Journal of Film Music (http:/ / www. ifms-jfm. org/ )
• (French) UnderScores : le magazine de la musique de film (http:/ / www. underscores. fr/ )

Page 13

Article Sources and Contributors 13

Article Sources and Contributors
Film score  Source:  Contributors: 93JC, A. Carty, A.G. Pinkwater, AbsolutDan, Accmusic, Acegikmo1, Acroyear, Adambro, Adavidb,
Adervae, Adrian 1001, Ahoerstemeier, Ajshm, AkiShinji, Alai, Ali Magassouba, AlphaForce, Amjaabc, Andland, Angr, AnotherPoint, Antandrus, Antrophica, Apesfan, Are Release,
Artihcus022, Aurora Illumina, BRPXQZME, Bacteria, Bansp, BashawBrothers, Batmanand, Belovedfreak, Ben Tibbetts, Benox95, Betacommand, Beyond silence, BigCow, BigFatBuddha,
Bigar, Bill Riojas Mclemore, Bobblewik, Bobmath, Boxpen88, Brooks McCray, Butros, Camembert, Cancun771, Captain Cusack, Cat's Tuxedo, Cecildeed, Centrx, Charles Matthews,
CharlieRCD, Chocolateboy, Chotaa, Chris 42, Ciphers, Ckatz, Clashfrankcastle, Cliffb, Composerofnote, Comrade009, Cookie90, Courcelles, D6, DT28, DabMachine, Datagutten, Datameister,
DaveGorman, DavidRF, DeansFA, Delta-2030, Dennywuh, Diego Moya, Difu Wu, Dillard421, Dissident, Doprendek, DoubleCross, Dream out loud, Dreamster, Drmies, Drunkenpeter99,
Dukeofomnium, DuncanHill, Dwanyewest, Dysprosia, EdOByrne, Editor at Large, EditorE, Eekerz, EgbertMcDunk, Egotripped22, Emas999, EmmSeeMusic, Emoscopes, Epbr123, Erik,
Evolauxia, Exir Kamalabadi, Fbv65edel, Fe26, Ffaarr, Film Music Lover, FilmFan69, Filmcommission, Filmcomposer, Fingers-of-Pyrex, Fischpredigt, FlorisGroen, Foober, Foothillpark, Fratrep,
Funandtrvl, Fuzzbox, GDonato, Gaepoi, Gaius Cornelius, Garrison Savannah, Garyhayton, Gingermint, GiskardReventlov, Goaty69, GoingBatty, Gongshow, Gothicfilm, Gouchi, Gtrmp, Gurch,
Hadal, Hagerman, Hbent, Hellgi, Hfuf4234, Hide&Reason, Hinrik, Histrion, Horncomposer, Hyacinth, Ian Dunster, Ianblair23, Icekiss, Ihcoyc, Incredibleriot, Infocidal, InnocuousPseudonym,
ItzDatGuy2k5, J Lorraine, J Milburn, J.delanoy, JaGa, Jamiemaloneyscoreg, Jashack, Jay-W, Jbinder, Jcamtzf, JeDi, Jedi94, Jefchip, Jeffmatt, JeremyLydellHaugen, Jg2904, Jiang,
Jim.henderson, Jim1138, Jlochoap, JnB987, JoeShmoe64, John Cardinal, John of Reading, JohnI, JonBroxton, JordoCo, Juliowolfgang, Jwy, K1Bond007, Kaobear, Karol Langner,
Karthik.raman, Kasaints, Kbthompson, Kchishol1970, Kevinbasil, Khazar, Khazar2, Kingboyk, Koavf, Kollision, Kookyunii, Kraken of the Depths, Kstarsinic, Kudpung, Kwaumane,
Kylahnicole, Laputamusic, Leahtwosaints, LeaveSleaves, Lightmouse, LilHelpa, LimoWreck, Linkdude20002001, Lironos, Louisa Young, Lovely Chris, Lradrama, LucasVB, Lugnuts, Lynbarn,
Lynn Shipley, Mad Max, Mafmafmaf, Magioladitis, MarXidad, Marc-Olivier Pagé, MarkOates0, MarnetteD, Materialscientist, MathiasRav, Mean as custard, Meegs, MegX, Megan1967,
Melodia, Mensch-Maschine, Mercurywoodrose, Michael Hardy, Mifter, Mike Dillon, Minesweeper, Mintguy, Miravin, Mirror Vax, Mooquu, Moviescore, Mpmmusic, Mrspeed, Murgh,
Musicalantonio, Mzilikazi1939, Nagendrapsingh, Nationalparks, Nehrams2020, New Film Scores, Niceguyedc, Nihonjoe, Nivaspm, Noirish, Noiselull, Norar, Number1celloplayer, ONEder Boy,
Ohnoitsjamie, Ohthelameness, Okc, Onco p53, Onesecondglance, Oscar, PAcomposer, PM800, Pacific1982, PatrickVH, Paul A, Peacenik62, Pegah, Pegship, Peter S., PhilSchabus, Philipwhiuk,
PhilyG, PhnomPencil, Phthoggos, Phydend, Pigman, Pinacolonic, Polarscribe, Pomte, Princess Lirin, Quiddity, RadicalOne, Red carrot, Reg porter, Reywas92, Rigadoun, Ritabetta, Rjwilmsi,
Rlfb, Rmhermen, Rmpteaching, Roadstaa, Robert Elliott, Roberta F., Robin klein, RoboAction, Rossheth, Rossiver, Rsanford, SD6-Agent, SDM 010, Sam, Samuel Kohler, Scanlan,
Scottandrewhutchins, Scroteau96, Sct72, Seglea, Sensei48, Sethcostas, Shadowjams, ShakespeareFan00, ShelfSkewed, SidP, SimonP, SirEbenezer, Sjcoulter, Skizzik, Skpstein, Slantboy,
Smartie2thaMaxXx, Smoothmoniker, Softssa, Solopiel, Spidey104, Splash, SqueakBox, Ssilvers, Stbalbach, SteveJothen, Stonnman, Subwayguy, Svenecarlsson, Sylvos, Syrthiss, TBHecht,
TDKFC2, Taelder, Talking, Tassedethe, Tearsinraine, Tedius Zanarukando, Tempodivalse, TexasAndroid, Tharpdevenport, The Banner Turbo, The JPS, The Wookieepedian, The beuks, The23rd
irishman, TheAllSeeingEye, TheMadBaron, Thecarraibean, Tiamy, Timwi, Toddst1, Triona, Tristan Morin, TubularWorld, TudorTulok, Tuneman42, Twang, Twsx, Typhoon966, Udenied,
Ulric1313, UnProdigii, Uncle.bungle, UnderScores, Uranium grenade, User293726, Utcursch, Uthanc, Vanished user 5zariu3jisj0j4irj, Violncello, Vivace123, Wafulz, Wangry, Wavelength,
Webjedi, Wendell, Wenli, Werdegast, Who, WikiBob47, Will Beback, Wmahan, Woohookitty, Wuffyz, Xpelliars, Yllosubmarine, Yuan2003, Yuccabeast, Yworo, Zoicon5, Zoraisheik, 719
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