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TitleFilm Score
TagsOrchestras Entertainment Performing Arts Tempo Film Score
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Total Pages13
Table of Contents
                            Film score
	Process of creation
		Spotting
		Syncing
			Digital Sequencer
			Written Click Track
		Writing
		Orchestration
		Recording
	Elements of a film score
		Temp tracks
		Structure
		Source music
	History
	Composers
		Academy Award nominees and winners
		Other award nominees and winners
		Box office champions
	Relation with directors
	Production music
	References
	Further reading
	External links
License
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

Film score 1

Film score
A film score (also sometimes called background music or incidental music) is original music written specifically
to accompany a film. The score forms part of the film's soundtrack, which also usually includes dialogue and sound
effects, and comprises a number of orchestral, instrumental or choral pieces called cues which are timed to begin and
end at specific points during the film in order to enhance the dramatic narrative and the emotional impact of the
scene in question.[1] Scores are written by one or more composers, under the guidance of, or in collaboration with,
the film's director and/or producer, and are then usually performed by an ensemble of musicians – most often
comprising an orchestra or band, instrumental soloists, and choir or vocalists – and recorded by a sound engineer.
Film scores encompass an enormous variety of styles of music, depending on the nature of the films they
accompany. The majority of scores are orchestral works rooted in Western classical music, but a great number of
scores also draw influence from jazz, rock, pop, blues, New Age ambient music, and a wide range of ethnic and
world music styles. Since the 1950s, a growing number of scores have also included electronic elements as part of
the score, and many scores written today feature a hybrid of orchestral and electronic instruments.[2]

Since the invention of digital technology and audio sampling, many low-budget films have been able to rely on
digital samples to imitate the sound of live instruments, and many scores are created and performed wholly by the
composers themselves, by using sophisticated music composition software.
Songs are usually not considered part of the film's score,[3] although songs do also form part of the film's soundtrack.
Although some songs, especially in musicals, are based on thematic ideas from the score (or vice-versa), scores
usually do not have lyrics, except for when sung by choirs or soloists as part of a cue. Similarly, pop songs which are
"needle dropped" into a specific scene in film for added emphasis are not considered part of the score, although
occasionally the score's composer will write an original pop song based on his themes, such as James Horner's "My
Heart Will Go On" from Titanic, written for Celine Dion.

Process of creation

Spotting
The composer usually enters the creative process towards the end of filming, at around the same time as the film is
being edited, although on some occasions the composer is on hand during the entire film shoot, especially when
actors are required to perform with or be aware of original diegetic music. The composer is shown an unpolished
"rough cut" of the film, before the editing is completed, and talks to the director or producer about what sort of music
is required for the film in terms of style and tone. The director and composer will watch the entire film, taking note
of which scenes require original music. During this process the composer will take precise timing notes so that he or
she knows how long each cue needs to last, where it begins, where it ends, and of particular moments during a scene
with which the music may need to coincide in a specific way. This process is known as "spotting".[4]

Occasionally, a film maker will actually edit his film to fit the flow of music, rather than the other way around,
which is the norm. Director Godfrey Reggio edited his films Koyaanisqatsi and Powaqqatsi based on composer
Philip Glass's music.[5] Similarly, the relationship between director Sergio Leone and composer Ennio Morricone
was such that the finale of The Good, the Bad and the Ugly and the films Once Upon a Time in the West and Once
Upon a Time in America were edited to Morricone's score as the composer had prepared it months before the film's
production ended.[6]

In another notable example, the finale of Steven Spielberg's E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial was edited to match the music
of his long-time collaborator John Williams: as recounted in a companion documentary on the DVD, Spielberg gave
Williams complete freedom with the music and asked him to record the cue without picture; Spielberg then re-edited
the scene later to match the music.

http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Soundtrack
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dialogue
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sound_effects
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sound_effects
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Music_cue
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Composer
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Film_director
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Film_producer
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sound_engineer
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Western_classical_music
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Jazz
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Rock_music
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pop_music
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Blues_music
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=New_Age_music
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Digital
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sampling_%28music%29
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Musical_film
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=James_Horner
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=My_Heart_Will_Go_On
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=My_Heart_Will_Go_On
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Titanic_%281997_film%29
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Celine_Dion
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Film_editing
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Diegetic
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Godfrey_Reggio
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Koyaanisqatsi
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Powaqqatsi
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Philip_Glass
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sergio_Leone
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ennio_Morricone
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=The_Good%2C_the_Bad_and_the_Ugly
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Once_Upon_a_Time_in_the_West
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Once_Upon_a_Time_in_America
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Once_Upon_a_Time_in_America
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Steven_Spielberg
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=E.T._the_Extra-Terrestrial
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=John_Williams

Page 2

Film score 2

In some circumstances, a composer will be asked to write music based on his or her impressions of the script or
storyboards, without seeing the film itself, and is given more freedom to create music without the need to adhere to
specific cue lengths or mirror the emotional arc of a particular scene. This approach is usually taken by a director
who does not wish to have the music comment specifically on a particular scene or nuance of a film, and which can
instead be inserted into the film at any point the director wishes during the post-production process. Composer Hans
Zimmer was asked to write music in this way in 2010 for director Christopher Nolan's film Inception;[7] composer
Gustavo Santaolalla did the same thing when he wrote his Oscar-winning score for Brokeback Mountain.[8]

Syncing
When writing music for film, one goal is to sync dramatic events happening on screen with musical events in the
score. There are many different methods for syncing music to picture. These include using sequencing software to
calculate timings, using mathematic formulas and free timing with reference timings. Composers work using
SMPTE timecode for syncing purposes.[9]

When syncing music to picture, generally a leeway of 3-4 frames late or early allows the composer to be extremely
accurate. Using a technique called Free Timing, a conductor will use either (a) a stop watch or studio size stopclock,
or (b) watch the film on a screen or video monitor while conducting the musicians to predetermined timings. These
are represented visually by vertical lines (streamers) and bursts of light called punches. These are put on the film by
the Music Editor at points specified by the composer. In both instances the timings on the clock or lines scribed on
the film have corresponding timings which are also at specific points (beats) in the composer/conductor score.

Digital Sequencer

Using a digital sequencer such as Digital Performer, Logic, or Cubase, composers are able to sync music to picture
with extreme accuracy using SMPTE timecode. Outlined below is one method using Digital Performer:[10]

1.1. Import the video to score into Digital Performer
2.2. Place a marker in the sequencer timeline where you wish to "hit" the event in the scene with music.
3.3. Note the SMPTE timecode (i.e. 01:00:15:23)
4.4. Note the start and end measure (bars+beats), and set it to an exact beat.
5.5. If the "end time" (timecode) field is greyed out, click the options button to open it up.
6.6. Enter the timecode where the downbeat will hit in the "end time" field.
You now will have synchronized an event in the film with a musical event, in time.

Written Click Track

A written click track is a method of writing bars of music in consistent time values (i.e. 4 beats in :02⅔ seconds) to
establish a constant tempo in lieu of a metronome value (e.g. 88 Bpm). A composer would use a written click if they
planned to conduct live performers. When using other methods such as a metronome, the conductor has a perfectly
spaced click playing in his ear which he conducts to. This can yield stiff and lifeless performances in slower more
expressive cues. You can convert a standard BPM value to a written click where X represents the number of beats
per bar, and W represents time in seconds, by using the following equation:

Written clicks are expressed using 1/3 second increments, so the next step is to round the decimal to either 0, 1/3, or
2/3 of a second. The following is an example for 88 BPM:

2.72 rounds to 2.66, so the written click is 4 beats in :02⅔ seconds.

http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Script_%28recorded_media%29
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Storyboards
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hans_Zimmer
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hans_Zimmer
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Christopher_Nolan
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Inception
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gustavo_Santaolalla
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Brokeback_Mountain
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=SMPTE_timecode

Page 6

Film score 6

the movie by Hans Erdmann played at the very beginning and end of the movie. One of the rare occasions on which
music occurs in the movie is a song one of the characters sings, that Lang uses to put emphasis on the man's insanity,
similar to the use of the whistling in M.
Though "the scoring of narrative features during the 1940s lagged decades behind technical innovations in the field
of concert music,"[28] the 1950s saw the rise of the modernist film score. Director Elia Kazan was open to the idea of
jazz influences and dissonant scoring and worked with Alex North, whose score for A Streetcar Named Desire
(1951) combined dissonance with elements of blues and jazz. Kazan also approached Leonard Bernstein to score On
the Waterfront (1954) and the result was reminiscent of earlier works by Aaron Copland and Igor Stravinsky with its
"jazz-based harmonies and exciting additive rhythms."[28] A year later, Leonard Rosenman, inspired by Arnold
Schoenberg, experimented with atonality in his scores for East of Eden (1955) and Rebel Without a Cause (1955). In
his ten-year collaboration with Alfred Hitchcock, Bernard Herrmann experimented with ideas in Vertigo (1958) and
Psycho (1960). The use of non-diegetic jazz was another modernist innovation, such as jazz star Duke Ellington's
score for Otto Preminger's Anatomy of a Murder (1959).

Composers

Academy Award nominees and winners
The following list includes all composers who have been nominated for an Academy Award by the Academy of
Motion Picture Arts and Sciences in the Best Original Score category (which, over the years, had gone by a variety
of names, included song scores and arrangements, and been split into awards for scoring in dramas and comedies).
Winners of the Award appear in bold. Note: Composers whose only Oscar nominations came in the Best Original
Song category are not listed, and Best Original Song wins are not counted in the wins tally.

• John Addison (1 win) •• George Fenton • John Leipold (1 win) • Ryuichi Sakamoto (1 win)
•• Larry Adler •• Cy Feuer • John Lennon (1 win) •• Conrad Salinger
•• Peter Herman Adler •• Jerry Fielding •• Alan Jay Lerner •• Hans J. Salter
•• Lynn Ahrens •• Stephen Flaherty •• Joseph J. Lilley •• Buck Sanders
•• Daniele Amfitheatrof •• Lou Forbes •• Andrew Lloyd Webber • Gustavo Santaolalla (2

wins)
•• Louis Applebaum •• Ian Fraser •• Frederick Loewe •• Philippe Sarde
•• Robert Armbruster •• Gerald Fried •• Jeremy Lubbock •• Walter Scharf
•• Leo Arnaud • Hugo Friedhofer (1 win) •• Michel Magne • Victor Schertzinger (1

win)
• Malcolm Arnold (1 win) •• Douglas Gamley • Henry Mancini (2 wins) •• Lalo Schifrin
•• Kenny Ascher •• Joseph Gershenson • Dario Marianelli (1 win) • Stephen Schwartz (1 win)
•• Gil Askey • Michael Giacchino (1 win) •• George Martin •• Morton Scott
• Luis Enríquez Bacalov (1

win)
•• Herschel Burke Gilbert •• Muir Mathieson •• Caiphus Semenya

• Burt Bacharach (1 win) •• Philip Glass •• Peter Matz •• Marc Shaiman
•• Constantin Bakaleinikoff •• Lud Gluskin •• Peter Maxwell Davies •• Ravi Shankar
•• Buddy Baker • Ernest Gold (1 win) •• Toshiro Mayuzumi •• Artie Shaw
•• Victor Baravalle • Elliot Goldenthal (1 win) • Paul McCartney (1 win) •• Al Shean
• John Barry (4 wins) • Jerry Goldsmith (1 win) •• Rod McKuen • Richard M. Sherman (1

win)
•• Marco Beltrami • Michael Gore (1 win) •• Bill Melendez • Robert B. Sherman (1 win)
•• Richard Rodney Bennett • Johnny Green (4 wins) • Alan Menken (4 wins) •• Nathaniel Shilkret
• Robert Russell Bennett (1

win)
•• Walter Greene •• Gian-Carlo Menotti • Howard Shore (2 wins)

• Alan Bergman (1 win) •• Peter Greenwell •• Johnny Mercer •• Dimitri Shostakovich
• Marilyn Bergman (1 win) •• Ferde Grofe •• Mahlon Merrick • Leo Shuken (1 win)

http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=M_%281931_film%29
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Modernist
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Elia_Kazan
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=A_Streetcar_Named_Desire_%281951_film%29
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Leonard_Bernstein
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=On_the_Waterfront
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=On_the_Waterfront
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Aaron_Copland
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Igor_Stravinsky
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Leonard_Rosenman
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Arnold_Schoenberg
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Arnold_Schoenberg
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=East_of_Eden_%28film%29
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Rebel_Without_a_Cause
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Alfred_Hitchcock
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bernard_Herrmann
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Vertigo_%28film%29
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Psycho_%281960_film%29
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Duke_Ellington
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Otto_Preminger
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Anatomy_of_a_Murder
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Academy_of_Motion_Picture_Arts_and_Sciences
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Academy_of_Motion_Picture_Arts_and_Sciences
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Academy_Award_for_Best_Original_Score
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Academy_Award_for_Best_Original_Song
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Academy_Award_for_Best_Original_Song
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Academy_Award_for_Best_Original_Song
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=John_Addison
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=George_Fenton
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=John_Leipold
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ryuichi_Sakamoto
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Larry_Adler
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cy_Feuer
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=John_Lennon
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Conrad_Salinger
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Peter_Herman_Adler
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Jerry_Fielding
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Alan_Jay_Lerner
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hans_J._Salter
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lynn_Ahrens
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Stephen_Flaherty
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Joseph_J._Lilley
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Buck_Sanders
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Daniele_Amfitheatrof
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lou_Forbes
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Andrew_Lloyd_Webber
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gustavo_Santaolalla
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Louis_Applebaum
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ian_Fraser_%28composer%29
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Frederick_Loewe
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Philippe_Sarde
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Robert_Armbruster
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gerald_Fried
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Jeremy_Lubbock
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Walter_Scharf
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Leo_Arnaud
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hugo_Friedhofer
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Michel_Magne
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Victor_Schertzinger
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Malcolm_Arnold
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Douglas_Gamley
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Henry_Mancini
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lalo_Schifrin
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kenny_Ascher
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Joseph_Gershenson
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dario_Marianelli
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Stephen_Schwartz_%28composer%29
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gil_Askey
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Michael_Giacchino
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=George_Martin
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Morton_Scott
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Luis_Enr%C3%ADquez_Bacalov
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Herschel_Burke_Gilbert
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Muir_Mathieson
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Caiphus_Semenya
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Burt_Bacharach
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Philip_Glass
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Peter_Matz
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Marc_Shaiman
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Constantin_Bakaleinikoff
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lud_Gluskin
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Peter_Maxwell_Davies
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ravi_Shankar
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Buddy_Baker_%28composer%29
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ernest_Gold_%28composer%29
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Toshiro_Mayuzumi
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Artie_Shaw
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Victor_Baravalle
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Elliot_Goldenthal
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Paul_McCartney
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Al_Shean
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=John_Barry_%28composer%29
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Jerry_Goldsmith
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Rod_McKuen
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Richard_M._Sherman
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Marco_Beltrami
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Michael_Gore
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bill_Melendez
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Robert_B._Sherman
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Richard_Rodney_Bennett
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Johnny_Green
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Alan_Menken
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Nathaniel_Shilkret
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Robert_Russell_Bennett
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Walter_Greene
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gian-Carlo_Menotti
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Howard_Shore
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Alan_Bergman
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Peter_Greenwell
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Johnny_Mercer
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dimitri_Shostakovich
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Marilyn_Bergman
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ferde_Grofe
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mahlon_Merrick
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Leo_Shuken

Page 7

Film score 7

• Elmer Bernstein (1 win) •• Louis Gruenberg •• Michel Michelet • Louis Silvers (1 win)
•• Leonard Bernstein • Dave Grusin (1 win) •• Cyril J. Mockridge •• Alan Silvestri
• Jay Blackton (1 win) •• Vince Guaraldi •• Lucien Moraweck •• Marlin Skiles
•• Chris Boardman •• Jonas Gwangwa •• Angela Morley •• Frank Skinner
• Ludovic Bource (1 win) •• Earle H. Hagen • Giorgio Moroder (1 win) • Paul J. Smith (1 win)
•• Phil Boutelje • Richard Hageman (1 win) •• Jerome Moross •• Herbert W. Spencer
• Leslie Bricusse (1 win) •• Karl Hajos • Ennio Morricone (Honorary

Oscar)
• Ringo Starr (1 win)

•• Bruce Broughton •• Al Ham •• John Morris •• Fred Steiner
•• George Bruns • Marvin Hamlisch (2 win) •• Boris Morros • Max Steiner (3 wins)
• Ralph Burns (2 wins) • Herbie Hancock (1 win) •• Jeff Moss •• Leith Stevens
•• R. Dale Butts • Leigh Harline (1 win) •• Javier Navarrete • Georgie Stoll (1 win)
• David Byrne (1 win) • W. Franke Harling (1 win) •• Anthony Newley • Morris Stoloff (3 wins)
•• Jorge Calandrelli • George Harrison (1 win) • Alfred Newman (9 wins) •• Robert Stolz
•• John Cameron •• Marvin Hatley •• David Newman •• Gregory Stone
•• Gerard Carbonara •• Isaac Hayes •• Emil Newman • Herbert Stothart (1 win)
• Charlie Chaplin (1 win) •• Jack Hayes • Lionel Newman (1 win) • Cong Su (1 win)
• Saul Chaplin (3 wins) • Lennie Hayton (1 win) •• Randy Newman • Harry Sukman (1 win)
• Frank Churchill (1 win) • Ray Heindorf (3 wins) •• Thomas Newman •• Alexander Tansman
•• Cy Coleman •• Charles Henderson •• Jack Nitzsche •• Rod Temperton
•• Anthony Collins • Bernard Herrmann (1 win) • Alex North (Honorary Oscar) •• Max Terr
•• Alberto Colombo •• Jerry Hey •• Edward Paul • Ken Thorne (1 win)
• Bill Conti (1 win) •• Werner Heymann •• Frank Perkins • Dimitri Tiomkin (3 wins)
• Aaron Copland (1 win) •• David Hirschfelder • Nicola Piovani (1 win) •• Ernst Toch
• Carmine Coppola (1 win) •• Joel Hirschhorn •• Edward H. Plumb •• Peter Townshend
•• Frank Cordell •• Samuel Hoffenstein • Rachel Portman (1 win) •• John Scott Trotter
• John Corigliano (1 win) •• Frederick Hollander •• John Powell • Jonathan Tunick (1 win)
•• Alexander Courage • James Horner (1 win) • André Previn (5 wins) • Vangelis (1 win)
•• Andrae Crouch •• James Newton Howard •• Charles Previn •• Tom Waits
• Mychael Danna (1 win) •• Alberto Iglesias • Prince (1 win) •• Don Walker
• Ken Darby (3 wins) •• Mark Isham • A.R. Rahman (1 win) • Oliver Wallace (1 win)
•• John Debney •• Calvin Jackson •• David Raksin •• William Walton
• Georges Delerue (1 win) •• Werner Janssen • Sid Ramin (1 win) • Stephen Warbeck (1 win)
•• Jacques Demy • Maurice Jarre (3 wins) • Raymond Rasch (1 win) •• Edward Ward
•• Alexandre Desplat •• Quincy Jones • Joe Renzetti (1 win) • Ned Washington (1 win)
• Adolph Deutsch (3 wins) • Jan A.P. Kaczmarek (1 win) • Trent Reznor (1 win) • Franz Waxman (2 wins)
•• Frank DeVol • Gus Kahn (1 win) •• Frederic E. Rich •• Kenneth Webb
•• Robert Emmett Dolan • Bronislau Kaper (1 win) • Nelson Riddle (1 win) •• Roy Webb
•• Patrick Doyle •• Fred Karlin •• Hugo Riesenfeld •• Kurt Weill
• Carmen Dragon (1 win) •• Marsha Karlin •• Richard Robbins •• Jerry Wexler
• Anne Dudley (1 win) •• Al Kasha •• Milan Roder •• Matthew Wilder
• Tan Dun (1 win) •• Edward Kay • Heinz Roemheld (1 win) • John Williams (5 wins)
•• George Duning •• Roger Kellaway •• Ann Ronell •• Patrick Williams
• Brian Easdale (1 win) •• Randy Kerber •• David Rose •• Paul Williams
• Roger Edens (3 wins) •• Jerome Kern •• Joel Rosenbaum •• Meredith Willson
•• Hanns Eisler • Erich Wolfgang Korngold (2

wins)
• Leonard Rosenman (2 wins) •• Charles Wolcott

•• Danny Elfman • Irwin Kostal (2 wins) •• Laurence Rosenthal •• Albert Woodbury
•• Duke Ellington •• Kris Kristofferson • Atticus Ross (1 win) • Gabriel Yared (1 win)
•• Jack Elliott • Francis Lai (1 win) • Nino Rota (1 win) • Victor Young (1 win)
•• Leo Erdody •• Arthur Lange •• Gennadi Rozhdestvensky • Hans Zimmer (1 win)

http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Elmer_Bernstein
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Louis_Gruenberg
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Michel_Michelet
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Louis_Silvers
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Leonard_Bernstein
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dave_Grusin
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cyril_J._Mockridge
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Alan_Silvestri
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Jay_Blackton
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Vince_Guaraldi
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lucien_Moraweck
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Marlin_Skiles
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Chris_Boardman_%28composer%29
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Jonas_Gwangwa
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Angela_Morley
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Frank_Skinner_%28composer%29
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ludovic_Bource
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Earle_H._Hagen
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Giorgio_Moroder
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Paul_J._Smith
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Phil_Boutelje
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Richard_Hageman
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Jerome_Moross
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Herbert_W._Spencer
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Leslie_Bricusse
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Karl_Hajos
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ennio_Morricone
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ringo_Starr
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bruce_Broughton
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Al_Ham
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=John_Morris_%28composer%29
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Fred_Steiner
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=George_Bruns
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Marvin_Hamlisch
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Boris_Morros
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Max_Steiner
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ralph_Burns
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Herbie_Hancock
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Jeff_Moss
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Leith_Stevens
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=R._Dale_Butts
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Leigh_Harline
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Javier_Navarrete
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Georgie_Stoll
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=David_Byrne
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=W._Franke_Harling
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Anthony_Newley
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Morris_Stoloff
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Jorge_Calandrelli
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=George_Harrison
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Alfred_Newman_%28composer%29
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Robert_Stolz
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=John_Cameron_%28musician%29
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Marvin_Hatley
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=David_Newman_%28composer%29
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gregory_Stone
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gerard_Carbonara
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Isaac_Hayes
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Emil_Newman
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Herbert_Stothart
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Charlie_Chaplin
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Jack_Hayes
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lionel_Newman
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cong_Su
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Saul_Chaplin
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lennie_Hayton
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Randy_Newman
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Harry_Sukman
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Frank_Churchill
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ray_Heindorf
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Thomas_Newman
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Alexander_Tansman
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cy_Coleman
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Charles_E._Henderson
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Jack_Nitzsche
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Rod_Temperton
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Anthony_Collins_%28composer%29
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bernard_Herrmann
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Alex_North
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Max_Terr
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Alberto_Colombo
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Jerry_Hey
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Edward_Paul
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ken_Thorne
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bill_Conti
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Werner_Heymann
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Frank_Perkins_%28composer%29
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dimitri_Tiomkin
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Aaron_Copland
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=David_Hirschfelder
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Nicola_Piovani
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ernst_Toch
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Carmine_Coppola
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Joel_Hirschhorn
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Edward_H._Plumb
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Peter_Townshend
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Frank_Cordell
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Samuel_Hoffenstein
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Rachel_Portman
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=John_Scott_Trotter
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=John_Corigliano
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Frederick_Hollander
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=John_Powell
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Jonathan_Tunick
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Alexander_Courage
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=James_Horner
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Andr%C3%A9_Previn
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Vangelis
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Andrae_Crouch
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=James_Newton_Howard
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Charles_Previn
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tom_Waits
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mychael_Danna
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Alberto_Iglesias
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Prince_%28musician%29
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Don_Walker_%28composer%29
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ken_Darby
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mark_Isham
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=A.R._Rahman
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Oliver_Wallace
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=John_Debney
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Calvin_Jackson
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=David_Raksin
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=William_Walton
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Georges_Delerue
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Werner_Janssen
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sid_Ramin
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Stephen_Warbeck
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Jacques_Demy
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Maurice_Jarre
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Raymond_Rasch
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Edward_Ward_%28composer%29
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Alexandre_Desplat
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Quincy_Jones
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Joe_Renzetti
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ned_Washington
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Adolph_Deutsch
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Jan_A.P._Kaczmarek
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Trent_Reznor
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Franz_Waxman
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Frank_DeVol
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gus_Kahn
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Frederic_E._Rich
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kenneth_Webb
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Robert_Emmett_Dolan
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bronislau_Kaper
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Nelson_Riddle
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Roy_Webb
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Patrick_Doyle
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Fred_Karlin
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hugo_Riesenfeld
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kurt_Weill
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Carmen_Dragon
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Marsha_Karlin
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Richard_Robbins_%28composer%29
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Jerry_Wexler
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Anne_Dudley
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Al_Kasha
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Milan_Roder
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Matthew_Wilder
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tan_Dun
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Edward_Kay
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Heinz_Roemheld
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=John_Williams
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=George_Duning
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Roger_Kellaway
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ann_Ronell
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Patrick_Williams_%28composer%29
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Brian_Easdale
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Randy_Kerber
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=David_Rose_%28musician%29
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Paul_Williams_%28songwriter%29
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Roger_Edens
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Jerome_Kern
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Joel_Rosenbaum
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Meredith_Willson
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hanns_Eisler
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Erich_Wolfgang_Korngold
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Leonard_Rosenman
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Charles_Wolcott
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Danny_Elfman
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Irwin_Kostal
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Laurence_Rosenthal
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Albert_Woodbury
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Duke_Ellington
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kris_Kristofferson
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Atticus_Ross
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gabriel_Yared
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Jack_Elliott_%28composer%29
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Francis_Lai
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Nino_Rota
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Victor_Young
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Leo_Erdody
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Arthur_Lange
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gennadi_Rozhdestvensky
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hans_Zimmer

Page 12

Film score 12

External links
Film music organizations
• Film Music Society (http:/ / www. filmmusicsociety. org/ )
• International Film Music Critics Association (http:/ / filmmusiccritics. org/ )
Film music review sites
• Cinemusic (http:/ / www. cinemusic. net/ ) (cinemusic.net)
• Filmmusicsite (http:/ / www. filmmusicsite. com) (filmmusicsite.com)
• Filmtracks (http:/ / www. filmtracks. com/ ) (filmtracks.com)
• MainTitles (http:/ / www. maintitles. net/ ) (maintitles.net)
• MovieCues (http:/ / www. moviecues. com/ ) (moviecues.com)
• Movie Music UK (http:/ / www. moviemusicuk. us/ ) (moviemusicuk.us)
• Movie Wave (http:/ / www. movie-wave. net/ ) (movie-wave.net)
• MusicWeb International: Film Music on the Web (http:/ / www. musicweb-international. com/ film/ index. htm)

(site closed in December 2006 and remains for archive purposes only)
• ScoreNotes (http:/ / www. scorenotes. com/ ) (scorenotes.com)
• Tracksounds (http:/ / www. tracksounds. com/ ) (tracksounds.com)
Journals (online and print)
• Film Music Magazine (http:/ / www. filmmusicmag. com/ )
• Film Music Review (http:/ / www. americanmusicpreservation. com/ fmr. htm)
• The Journal of Film Music (http:/ / www. ifms-jfm. org/ )
• (French) UnderScores : le magazine de la musique de film (http:/ / www. underscores. fr/ )

http://www.filmmusicsociety.org/
http://filmmusiccritics.org/
http://www.cinemusic.net/
http://www.filmmusicsite.com
http://www.filmtracks.com/
http://www.maintitles.net/
http://www.moviecues.com/
http://www.moviemusicuk.us/
http://www.movie-wave.net/
http://www.musicweb-international.com/film/index.htm
http://www.scorenotes.com/
http://www.tracksounds.com/
http://www.filmmusicmag.com/
http://www.americanmusicpreservation.com/fmr.htm
http://www.ifms-jfm.org/
http://www.underscores.fr/

Page 13

Article Sources and Contributors 13

Article Sources and Contributors
Film score  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=562035890  Contributors: 93JC, A. Carty, A.G. Pinkwater, AbsolutDan, Accmusic, Acegikmo1, Acroyear, Adambro, Adavidb,
Adervae, Adrian 1001, Ahoerstemeier, Ajshm, AkiShinji, Alai, Ali Magassouba, AlphaForce, Amjaabc, Andland, Angr, AnotherPoint, Antandrus, Antrophica, Apesfan, Are Release,
Artihcus022, Aurora Illumina, BRPXQZME, Bacteria, Bansp, BashawBrothers, Batmanand, Belovedfreak, Ben Tibbetts, Benox95, Betacommand, Beyond silence, BigCow, BigFatBuddha,
Bigar, Bill Riojas Mclemore, Bobblewik, Bobmath, Boxpen88, Brooks McCray, Butros, Camembert, Cancun771, Captain Cusack, Cat's Tuxedo, Cecildeed, Centrx, Charles Matthews,
CharlieRCD, Chocolateboy, Chotaa, Chris 42, Ciphers, Ckatz, Clashfrankcastle, Cliffb, Composerofnote, Comrade009, Cookie90, Courcelles, D6, DT28, DabMachine, Datagutten, Datameister,
DaveGorman, DavidRF, DeansFA, Delta-2030, Dennywuh, Diego Moya, Difu Wu, Dillard421, Dissident, Doprendek, DoubleCross, Dream out loud, Dreamster, Drmies, Drunkenpeter99,
Dukeofomnium, DuncanHill, Dwanyewest, Dysprosia, EdOByrne, Editor at Large, EditorE, Eekerz, EgbertMcDunk, Egotripped22, Emas999, EmmSeeMusic, Emoscopes, Epbr123, Erik,
Evolauxia, Exir Kamalabadi, Fbv65edel, Fe26, Ffaarr, Film Music Lover, FilmFan69, Filmcommission, Filmcomposer, Fingers-of-Pyrex, Fischpredigt, FlorisGroen, Foober, Foothillpark, Fratrep,
Funandtrvl, Fuzzbox, GDonato, Gaepoi, Gaius Cornelius, Garrison Savannah, Garyhayton, Gingermint, GiskardReventlov, Goaty69, GoingBatty, Gongshow, Gothicfilm, Gouchi, Gtrmp, Gurch,
Hadal, Hagerman, Hbent, Hellgi, Hfuf4234, Hide&Reason, Hinrik, Histrion, Horncomposer, Hyacinth, Ian Dunster, Ianblair23, Icekiss, Ihcoyc, Incredibleriot, Infocidal, InnocuousPseudonym,
ItzDatGuy2k5, J Lorraine, J Milburn, J.delanoy, JaGa, Jamiemaloneyscoreg, Jashack, Jay-W, Jbinder, Jcamtzf, JeDi, Jedi94, Jefchip, Jeffmatt, JeremyLydellHaugen, Jg2904, Jiang,
Jim.henderson, Jim1138, Jlochoap, JnB987, JoeShmoe64, John Cardinal, John of Reading, JohnI, JonBroxton, JordoCo, Juliowolfgang, Jwy, K1Bond007, Kaobear, Karol Langner,
Karthik.raman, Kasaints, Kbthompson, Kchishol1970, Kevinbasil, Khazar, Khazar2, Kingboyk, Koavf, Kollision, Kookyunii, Kraken of the Depths, Kstarsinic, Kudpung, Kwaumane,
Kylahnicole, Laputamusic, Leahtwosaints, LeaveSleaves, Lightmouse, LilHelpa, LimoWreck, Linkdude20002001, Lironos, Louisa Young, Lovely Chris, Lradrama, LucasVB, Lugnuts, Lynbarn,
Lynn Shipley, Mad Max, Mafmafmaf, Magioladitis, MarXidad, Marc-Olivier Pagé, MarkOates0, MarnetteD, Materialscientist, MathiasRav, Mean as custard, Meegs, MegX, Megan1967,
Melodia, Mensch-Maschine, Mercurywoodrose, Michael Hardy, Mifter, Mike Dillon, Minesweeper, Mintguy, Miravin, Mirror Vax, Mooquu, Moviescore, Mpmmusic, Mrspeed, Murgh,
Musicalantonio, Mzilikazi1939, Nagendrapsingh, Nationalparks, Nehrams2020, New Film Scores, Niceguyedc, Nihonjoe, Nivaspm, Noirish, Noiselull, Norar, Number1celloplayer, ONEder Boy,
Ohnoitsjamie, Ohthelameness, Okc, Onco p53, Onesecondglance, Oscar, PAcomposer, PM800, Pacific1982, PatrickVH, Paul A, Peacenik62, Pegah, Pegship, Peter S., PhilSchabus, Philipwhiuk,
PhilyG, PhnomPencil, Phthoggos, Phydend, Pigman, Pinacolonic, Polarscribe, Pomte, Princess Lirin, Quiddity, RadicalOne, Red carrot, Reg porter, Reywas92, Rigadoun, Ritabetta, Rjwilmsi,
Rlfb, Rmhermen, Rmpteaching, Roadstaa, Robert Elliott, Roberta F., Robin klein, RoboAction, Rossheth, Rossiver, Rsanford, SD6-Agent, SDM 010, Sam, Samuel Kohler, Scanlan,
Scottandrewhutchins, Scroteau96, Sct72, Seglea, Sensei48, Sethcostas, Shadowjams, ShakespeareFan00, ShelfSkewed, SidP, SimonP, SirEbenezer, Sjcoulter, Skizzik, Skpstein, Slantboy,
Smartie2thaMaxXx, Smoothmoniker, Softssa, Solopiel, Spidey104, Splash, SqueakBox, Ssilvers, Stbalbach, SteveJothen, Stonnman, Subwayguy, Svenecarlsson, Sylvos, Syrthiss, TBHecht,
TDKFC2, Taelder, Talking, Tassedethe, Tearsinraine, Tedius Zanarukando, Tempodivalse, TexasAndroid, Tharpdevenport, The Banner Turbo, The JPS, The Wookieepedian, The beuks, The23rd
irishman, TheAllSeeingEye, TheMadBaron, Thecarraibean, Tiamy, Timwi, Toddst1, Triona, Tristan Morin, TubularWorld, TudorTulok, Tuneman42, Twang, Twsx, Typhoon966, Udenied,
Ulric1313, UnProdigii, Uncle.bungle, UnderScores, Uranium grenade, User293726, Utcursch, Uthanc, Vanished user 5zariu3jisj0j4irj, Violncello, Vivace123, Wafulz, Wangry, Wavelength,
Webjedi, Wendell, Wenli, Werdegast, Who, WikiBob47, Will Beback, Wmahan, Woohookitty, Wuffyz, Xpelliars, Yllosubmarine, Yuan2003, Yuccabeast, Yworo, Zoicon5, Zoraisheik, 719
anonymous edits

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