Title Fundamentals of Physics Textbook Editor'S Picks Most Popular Academic & Education English 51.2 MB 1450
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Title Page
PREFACE
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Contents
1 Measurement
1-1 MEASURING THINGS, INCLUDING LENGTHS
1-2 TIME
1-3 MASS
REVIEW & SUMMARY
PROBLEMS
2 Motion Along a Straight Line
2-1 POSITION, DISPLACEMENT, AND AVERAGE VELOCITY
2-2 INSTANTANEOUS VELOCITY AND SPEED
2-3 ACCELERATION
2-4 CONSTANT ACCELERATION
2-5 FREE-FALL ACCELERATION
2-6 GRAPHICAL INTEGRATION IN MOTION ANALYSIS
REVIEW & SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
3 Vectors
3-1 VECTORS AND THEIR COMPONENTS
3-2 UNIT VECTORS, ADDING VECTORS BY COMPONENTS
3-3 MULTIPLYING VECTORS
REVIEW & SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
4 Motion in Two and Three Dimensions
4-1 POSITION AND DISPLACEMENT
4-2 AVERAGE VELOCITY AND INSTANTANEOUS VELOCITY
4-3 AVERAGE ACCELERATION AND INSTANTANEOUS ACCELERATION
4-4 PROJECTILE MOTION
4-5 UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION
4-6 RELATIVE MOTION IN ONE DIMENSION
4-7 RELATIVE MOTION IN TWO DIMENSIONS
REVIEW & SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
5 Force and Motion—I
5-1 NEWTON’S FIRST AND SECOND LAWS
5-2 SOME PARTICULAR FORCES
5-3 APPLYING NEWTON’S LAWS
REVIEW & SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
6 Force and Motion—II
6-1 FRICTION
6-2 THE DRAG FORCE AND TERMINAL SPEED
6-3 UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION
REVIEW & SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
7 Kinetic Energy and Work
7-1 KINETIC ENERGY
7-2 WORK AND KINETIC ENERGY
7-3 WORK DONE BY THE GRAVITATIONAL FORCE
7-4 WORK DONE BY A SPRING FORCE
7-5 WORK DONE BY A GENERAL VARIABLE FORCE
7-6 POWER
REVIEW & SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
8 Potential Energy and Conservation of Energy
8-1 POTENTIAL ENERGY
8-2 CONSERVATION OF MECHANICAL ENERGY
8-3 READING A POTENTIAL ENERGY CURVE
8-4 WORK DONE ON A SYSTEM BY AN EXTERNAL FORCE
8-5 CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
REVIEW & SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
9 Center of Mass and Linear Momentum
9-1 CENTER OF MASS
9-2 NEWTON’S SECOND LAW FOR A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES
9-3 LINEAR MOMENTUM
9-4 COLLISION AND IMPULSE
9-5 CONSERVATION OF LINEAR MOMENTUM
9-6 MOMENTUM AND KINETIC ENERGY IN COLLISIONS
9-7 ELASTIC COLLISIONS IN ONE DIMENSION
9-8 COLLISIONS IN TWO DIMENSIONS
9-9 SYSTEMS WITH VARYING MASS: A ROCKET
REVIEW & SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
10 Rotation
10-1 ROTATIONAL VARIABLES
10-2 ROTATION WITH CONSTANT ANGULAR ACCELERATION
10-3 RELATING THE LINEAR AND ANGULAR VARIABLES
10-4 KINETIC ENERGY OF ROTATION
10-5 CALCULATING THE ROTATIONAL INERTIA
10-6 TORQUE
10-7 NEWTON’S SECOND LAW FOR ROTATION
10-8 WORK AND ROTATIONAL KINETIC ENERGY
REVIEW & SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
11 Rolling, Torque, and Angular Momentum
11-1 ROLLING AS TRANSLATION AND ROTATION COMBINED
11-2 FORCES AND KINETIC ENERGY OF ROLLING
11-3 THE YO-YO
11-4 TORQUE REVISITED
11-5 ANGULAR MOMENTUM
11-6 NEWTON’S SECOND LAW IN ANGULAR FORM
11-7 ANGULAR MOMENTUM OF A RIGID BODY
11-8 CONSERVATION OF ANGULAR MOMENTUM
11-9 PRECESSION OF A GYROSCOPE
REVIEW & SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
12 Equilibrium and Elasticity
12-1 EQUILIBRIUM
12-2 SOME EXAMPLES OF STATIC EQUILIBRIUM
12-3 ELASTICITY
REVIEW & SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
13 Gravitation
13-1 NEWTON’S LAW OF GRAVITATION
13-2 GRAVITATION AND THE PRINCIPLE OF SUPERPOSITION
13-3 GRAVITATION NEAR EARTH’S SURFACE
13-4 GRAVITATION INSIDE EARTH
13-5 GRAVITATIONAL POTENTIAL ENERGY
13-6 PLANETS AND SATELLITES: KEPLER’S LAWS
13-7 SATELLITES: ORBITS AND ENERGY
13-8 EINSTEIN AND GRAVITATION
REVIEW & SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
14 Fluids
14-1 FLUIDS, DENSITY, AND PRESSURE
14-2 FLUIDS AT REST
14-3 MEASURING PRESSURE
14-4 PASCAL’S PRINCIPLE
14-5 ARCHIMEDES’ PRINCIPLE
14-6 THE EQUATION OF CONTINUITY
14-7 BERNOULLI’S EQUATION
REVIEW & SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
15 Oscillations
15-1 SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION
15-2 ENERGY IN SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION
15-3 AN ANGULAR SIMPLE HARMONIC OSCILLATOR
15-4 PENDULUMS, CIRCULAR MOTION
15-5 DAMPED SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION
15-6 FORCED OSCILLATIONS AND RESONANCE
REVIEW & SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
16 Waves—I
16-1 TRANSVERSE WAVES
16-2 WAVE SPEED ON A STRETCHED STRING
16-3 ENERGY AND POWER OF A WAVE TRAVELING ALONG A STRING
16-4 THE WAVE EQUATION
16-5 INTERFERENCE OF WAVES
16-6 PHASORS
16-7 STANDING WAVES AND RESONANCE
REVIEW & SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
17 Waves—II
17-1 SPEED OF SOUND
17-2 TRAVELING SOUND WAVES
17-3 INTERFERENCE
17-4 INTENSITY AND SOUND LEVEL
17-5 SOURCES OF MUSICAL SOUND
17-6 BEATS
17-7 THE DOPPLER EFFECT
17-8 SUPERSONIC SPEEDS, SHOCK WAVES
REVIEW & SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
18 Temperature, Heat, and the First Law of Thermodynamics
18-1 TEMPERATURE
18-2 THE CELSIUS AND FAHRENHEIT SCALES
18-3 THERMAL EXPANSION
18-4 ABSORPTION OF HEAT
18-5 THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
18-6 HEAT TRANSFER MECHANISMS
REVIEW & SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
19 The Kinetic Theory of Gases
19-2 IDEAL GASES
19-3 PRESSURE, TEMPERATURE, AND RMS SPEED
19-4 TRANSLATIONAL KINETIC ENERGY
19-5 MEAN FREE PATH
19-6 THE DISTRIBUTION OF MOLECULAR SPEEDS
19-7 THE MOLAR SPECIFIC HEATS OF AN IDEAL GAS
19-8 DEGREES OF FREEDOM AND MOLAR SPECIFIC HEATS
19-9 THE ADIABATIC EXPANSION OF AN IDEAL GAS
REVIEW & SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
20 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics
20-1 ENTROPY
20-2 ENTROPY IN THE REAL WORLD: ENGINES
20-3 REFRIGERATORS AND REAL ENGINES
20-4 A STATISTICAL VIEW OF ENTROPY
REVIEW & SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
21 Coulomb’s Law
21-1 COULOMB’S LAW
21-2 CHARGE IS QUANTIZED
21-3 CHARGE IS CONSERVED
REVIEW & SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
22 Electric Fields
22-1 THE ELECTRIC FIELD
22-2 THE ELECTRIC FIELD DUE TO A CHARGED PARTICLE
22-3 THE ELECTRIC FIELD DUE TO A DIPOLE
22-4 THE ELECTRIC FIELD DUE TO A LINE OF CHARGE
22-5 THE ELECTRIC FIELD DUE TO A CHARGED DISK
22-6 A POINT CHARGE IN AN ELECTRIC FIELD
22-7 A DIPOLE IN AN ELECTRIC FIELD
REVIEW & SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
23 Gauss’ Law
23-1 ELECTRIC FLUX
23-2 GAUSS’ LAW
23-3 A CHARGED ISOLATED CONDUCTOR
23-4 APPLYING GAUSS’ LAW: CYLINDRICAL SYMMETRY
23-5 APPLYING GAUSS’ LAW: PLANAR SYMMETRY
23-6 APPLYING GAUSS’ LAW: SPHERICAL SYMMETRY
REVIEW & SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
24 Electric Potential
24-1 ELECTRIC POTENTIAL
24-2 EQUIPOTENTIAL SURFACES AND THE ELECTRIC FIELD
24-3 POTENTIAL DUE TO A CHARGED PARTICLE
24-4 POTENTIAL DUE TO AN ELECTRIC DIPOLE
24-5 POTENTIAL DUE TO A CONTINUOUS CHARGE DISTRIBUTION
24-6 CALCULATING THE FIELD FROM THE POTENTIAL
24-7 ELECTRIC POTENTIAL ENERGY OF A SYSTEM OF CHARGED PARTICLES
24-8 POTENTIAL OF A CHARGED ISOLATED CONDUCTOR
REVIEW & SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
25 Capacitance
25-1 CAPACITANCE
25-2 CALCULATING THE CAPACITANCE
25-3 CAPACITORS IN PARALLEL AND IN SERIES
25-4 ENERGY STORED IN AN ELECTRIC FIELD
25-5 CAPACITOR WITH A DIELECTRIC
25-6 DIELECTRICS AND GAUSS’ LAW
REVIEW & SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
26 Current and Resistance
26-1 ELECTRIC CURRENT
26-2 CURRENT DENSITY
26-3 RESISTANCE AND RESISTIVITY
26-4 OHM’S LAW
26-5 POWER, SEMICONDUCTORS, SUPERCONDUCTORS
REVIEW & SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
27 Circuits
27-1 SINGLE-LOOP CIRCUITS
27-2 MULTILOOP CIRCUITS
27-3 THE AMMETER AND THE VOLTMETER
27-4 RC CIRCUITS
REVIEW & SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
28 Magnetic Fields
28-1 MAGNETIC FIELDS AND THE DEFINITION OF B
28-2 CROSSED FIELDS: DISCOVERY OF THE ELECTRON
28-3 CROSSED FIELDS: THE HALL EFFECT
28-4 A CIRCULATING CHARGED PARTICLE
28-5 CYCLOTRONS AND SYNCHROTRONS
28-6 MAGNETIC FORCE ON A CURRENT-CARRYING WIRE
28-7 TORQUE ON A CURRENT LOOP
28-8 THE MAGNETIC DIPOLE MOMENT
REVIEW & SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
29 Magnetic Fields Due to Currents
29-1 MAGNETIC FIELD DUE TO A CURRENT
29-2 FORCE BETWEEN TWO PARALLEL CURRENTS
29-3 AMPERE’S LAW
29-4 SOLENOIDS AND TOROIDS
29-5 A CURRENT-CARRYING COIL AS A MAGNETIC DIPOLE
REVIEW & SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
30 Induction and Inductance
30-1 FARADAY’S LAW AND LENZ’S LAW
30-2 INDUCTION AND ENERGY TRANSFERS
30-3 INDUCED ELECTRIC FIELDS
30-4 INDUCTORS AND INDUCTANCE
30-5 SELF-INDUCTION
30-6 RL CIRCUITS
30-7 ENERGY STORED IN A MAGNETIC FIELD
30-8 ENERGY DENSITY OF A MAGNETIC FIELD
30-9 MUTUAL INDUCTION
REVIEW & SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
31 Electromagnetic Oscillations and Alternating Current
31-1 LC OSCILLATIONS
31-2 DAMPED OSCILLATIONS IN AN RLC CIRCUIT
31-3 FORCED OSCILLATIONS OF THREE SIMPLE CIRCUITS
31-4 THE SERIES RLC CIRCUIT
31-5 POWER IN ALTERNATING-CURRENT CIRCUITS
31-6 TRANSFORMERS
REVIEW & SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
32 Maxwell’s Equations; Magnetism of Matter
32-1 GAUSS’ LAW FOR MAGNETIC FIELDS
32-2 INDUCED MAGNETIC FIELDS
32-3 DISPLACEMENT CURRENT
32-4 MAGNETS
32-5 MAGNETISM AND ELECTRONS
32-6 DIAMAGNETISM
32-7 PARAMAGNETISM
32-8 FERROMAGNETISM
REVIEW & SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
33 Electromagnetic Waves
33-1 ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES
33-2 ENERGY TRANSPORT AND THE POYNTING VECTOR
33-4 POLARIZATION
33-5 REFLECTION AND REFRACTION
33-6 TOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION
33-7 POLARIZATION BY REFLECTION
REVIEW & SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
34 Images
34-1 IMAGES AND PLANE MIRRORS
34-2 SPHERICAL MIRRORS
34-3 SPHERICAL REFRACTING SURFACES
34-4 THIN LENSES
34-5 OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS
34-6 THREE PROOFS
REVIEW & SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
35 Interference
35-1 LIGHT AS A WAVE
35-2 YOUNG’S INTERFERENCE EXPERIMENT
35-3 INTERFERENCE AND DOUBLE-SLIT INTENSITY
35-4 INTERFERENCE FROM THIN FILMS
35-5 MICHELSON’S INTERFEROMETER
REVIEW & SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
36 Diffraction
36-1 SINGLE-SLIT DIFFRACTION
36-2 INTENSITY IN SINGLE-SLIT DIFFRACTION
36-3 DIFFRACTION BY A CIRCULAR APERTURE
36-4 DIFFRACTION BY A DOUBLE SLIT
36-5 DIFFRACTION GRATINGS
36-6 GRATINGS: DISPERSION AND RESOLVING POWER
36-7 X-RAY DIFFRACTION
REVIEW & SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
37 Relativity
37-1 SIMULTANEITY AND TIME DILATION
37-2 THE RELATIVITY OF LENGTH
37-3 THE LORENTZ TRANSFORMATION
37-4 THE RELATIVITY OF VELOCITIES
37-5 DOPPLER EFFECT FOR LIGHT
37-6 MOMENTUM AND ENERGY
REVIEW & SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
38 Photons and Matter Waves
38-1 THE PHOTON, THE QUANTUM OF LIGHT
38-2 THE PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT
38-3 PHOTONS, MOMENTUM, COMPTON SCATTERING, LIGHT INTERFERENCE
38-4 THE BIRTH OF QUANTUM PHYSICS
38-5 ELECTRONS AND MATTER WAVES
38-6 SCHRÖDINGER’S EQUATION
38-7 HEISENBERG’S UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE
38-8 REFLECTION FROM A POTENTIAL STEP
38-9 TUNNELING THROUGH A POTENTIAL BARRIER
REVIEW & SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
39-1 ENERGIES OF A TRAPPED ELECTRON
39-2 WAVE FUNCTIONS OF A TRAPPED ELECTRON
39-3 AN ELECTRON IN A FINITE WELL
39-4 TWO- AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL ELECTRON TRAPS
39-5 THE HYDROGEN ATOM
REVIEW & SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
40-1 PROPERTIES OF ATOMS
40-2 THE STERN-GERLACH EXPERIMENT
40-3 MAGNETIC RESONANCE
40-4 EXCLUSION PRINCIPLE AND MULTIPLE ELECTRONS IN A TRAP
40-5 BUILDING THE PERIODIC TABLE
40-6 X RAYS AND THE ORDERING OF THE ELEMENTS
40-7 LASERS
REVIEW & SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
41 Conduction of Electricity in Solids
41-1 THE ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS
41-2 SEMICONDUCTORS AND DOPING
41-3 THE p-n JUNCTION AND THE TRANSISTOR
REVIEW & SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
42 Nuclear Physics
42-1 DISCOVERING THE NUCLEUS
42-2 SOME NUCLEAR PROPERTIES
42-4 ALPHA DECAY
42-5 BETA DECAY
42-8 NUCLEAR MODELS
REVIEW & SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
43 Energy from the Nucleus
43-1 NUCLEAR FISSION
43-2 THE NUCLEAR REACTOR
43-3 A NATURAL NUCLEAR REACTOR
43-4 THERMONUCLEAR FUSION: THE BASIC PROCESS
43-5 THERMONUCLEAR FUSION IN THE SUN AND OTHER STARS
43-6 CONTROLLED THERMONUCLEAR FUSION
REVIEW & SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
44 Quarks, Leptons, and the Big Bang
44-1 GENERAL PROPERTIES OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES
44-3 QUARKS AND MESSENGER PARTICLES
44-4 COSMOLOGY
REVIEW & SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
APPENDICES
A: The International System of Units (SI)
B: Some Fundamental Constants of Physics
C: Some Astronomical Data
D: Conversion Factors
E: Mathematical Formulas
F: Properties of The Elements
G: Periodic Table of The Elements
ANSWERS: To Checkpoints and Odd-Numbered Questions and Problems
INDEX
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