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TitleFundamentals of Physics Textbook
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Table of Contents
                            Cover
Title Page
Copyright
PREFACE
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Contents
1 Measurement
	1-1 MEASURING THINGS, INCLUDING LENGTHS
	1-2 TIME
	1-3 MASS
	REVIEW & SUMMARY
	PROBLEMS
2 Motion Along a Straight Line
	2-1 POSITION, DISPLACEMENT, AND AVERAGE VELOCITY
	2-2 INSTANTANEOUS VELOCITY AND SPEED
	2-3 ACCELERATION
	2-4 CONSTANT ACCELERATION
	2-5 FREE-FALL ACCELERATION
	2-6 GRAPHICAL INTEGRATION IN MOTION ANALYSIS
	REVIEW & SUMMARY
	QUESTIONS
	PROBLEMS
3 Vectors
	3-1 VECTORS AND THEIR COMPONENTS
	3-2 UNIT VECTORS, ADDING VECTORS BY COMPONENTS
	3-3 MULTIPLYING VECTORS
	REVIEW & SUMMARY
	QUESTIONS
	PROBLEMS
4 Motion in Two and Three Dimensions
	4-1 POSITION AND DISPLACEMENT
	4-2 AVERAGE VELOCITY AND INSTANTANEOUS VELOCITY
	4-3 AVERAGE ACCELERATION AND INSTANTANEOUS ACCELERATION
	4-4 PROJECTILE MOTION
	4-5 UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION
	4-6 RELATIVE MOTION IN ONE DIMENSION
	4-7 RELATIVE MOTION IN TWO DIMENSIONS
	REVIEW & SUMMARY
	QUESTIONS
	PROBLEMS
5 Force and Motion—I
	5-1 NEWTON’S FIRST AND SECOND LAWS
	5-2 SOME PARTICULAR FORCES
	5-3 APPLYING NEWTON’S LAWS
	REVIEW & SUMMARY
	QUESTIONS
	PROBLEMS
6 Force and Motion—II
	6-1 FRICTION
	6-2 THE DRAG FORCE AND TERMINAL SPEED
	6-3 UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION
	REVIEW & SUMMARY
	QUESTIONS
	PROBLEMS
7 Kinetic Energy and Work
	7-1 KINETIC ENERGY
	7-2 WORK AND KINETIC ENERGY
	7-3 WORK DONE BY THE GRAVITATIONAL FORCE
	7-4 WORK DONE BY A SPRING FORCE
	7-5 WORK DONE BY A GENERAL VARIABLE FORCE
	7-6 POWER
	REVIEW & SUMMARY
	QUESTIONS
	PROBLEMS
8 Potential Energy and Conservation of Energy
	8-1 POTENTIAL ENERGY
	8-2 CONSERVATION OF MECHANICAL ENERGY
	8-3 READING A POTENTIAL ENERGY CURVE
	8-4 WORK DONE ON A SYSTEM BY AN EXTERNAL FORCE
	8-5 CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
	REVIEW & SUMMARY
	QUESTIONS
	PROBLEMS
9 Center of Mass and Linear Momentum
	9-1 CENTER OF MASS
	9-2 NEWTON’S SECOND LAW FOR A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES
	9-3 LINEAR MOMENTUM
	9-4 COLLISION AND IMPULSE
	9-5 CONSERVATION OF LINEAR MOMENTUM
	9-6 MOMENTUM AND KINETIC ENERGY IN COLLISIONS
	9-7 ELASTIC COLLISIONS IN ONE DIMENSION
	9-8 COLLISIONS IN TWO DIMENSIONS
	9-9 SYSTEMS WITH VARYING MASS: A ROCKET
	REVIEW & SUMMARY
	QUESTIONS
	PROBLEMS
10 Rotation
	10-1 ROTATIONAL VARIABLES
	10-2 ROTATION WITH CONSTANT ANGULAR ACCELERATION
	10-3 RELATING THE LINEAR AND ANGULAR VARIABLES
	10-4 KINETIC ENERGY OF ROTATION
	10-5 CALCULATING THE ROTATIONAL INERTIA
	10-6 TORQUE
	10-7 NEWTON’S SECOND LAW FOR ROTATION
	10-8 WORK AND ROTATIONAL KINETIC ENERGY
	REVIEW & SUMMARY
	QUESTIONS
	PROBLEMS
11 Rolling, Torque, and Angular Momentum
	11-1 ROLLING AS TRANSLATION AND ROTATION COMBINED
	11-2 FORCES AND KINETIC ENERGY OF ROLLING
	11-3 THE YO-YO
	11-4 TORQUE REVISITED
	11-5 ANGULAR MOMENTUM
	11-6 NEWTON’S SECOND LAW IN ANGULAR FORM
	11-7 ANGULAR MOMENTUM OF A RIGID BODY
	11-8 CONSERVATION OF ANGULAR MOMENTUM
	11-9 PRECESSION OF A GYROSCOPE
	REVIEW & SUMMARY
	QUESTIONS
	PROBLEMS
12 Equilibrium and Elasticity
	12-1 EQUILIBRIUM
	12-2 SOME EXAMPLES OF STATIC EQUILIBRIUM
	12-3 ELASTICITY
	REVIEW & SUMMARY
	QUESTIONS
	PROBLEMS
13 Gravitation
	13-1 NEWTON’S LAW OF GRAVITATION
	13-2 GRAVITATION AND THE PRINCIPLE OF SUPERPOSITION
	13-3 GRAVITATION NEAR EARTH’S SURFACE
	13-4 GRAVITATION INSIDE EARTH
	13-5 GRAVITATIONAL POTENTIAL ENERGY
	13-6 PLANETS AND SATELLITES: KEPLER’S LAWS
	13-7 SATELLITES: ORBITS AND ENERGY
	13-8 EINSTEIN AND GRAVITATION
	REVIEW & SUMMARY
	QUESTIONS
	PROBLEMS
14 Fluids
	14-1 FLUIDS, DENSITY, AND PRESSURE
	14-2 FLUIDS AT REST
	14-3 MEASURING PRESSURE
	14-4 PASCAL’S PRINCIPLE
	14-5 ARCHIMEDES’ PRINCIPLE
	14-6 THE EQUATION OF CONTINUITY
	14-7 BERNOULLI’S EQUATION
	REVIEW & SUMMARY
	QUESTIONS
	PROBLEMS
15 Oscillations
	15-1 SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION
	15-2 ENERGY IN SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION
	15-3 AN ANGULAR SIMPLE HARMONIC OSCILLATOR
	15-4 PENDULUMS, CIRCULAR MOTION
	15-5 DAMPED SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION
	15-6 FORCED OSCILLATIONS AND RESONANCE
	REVIEW & SUMMARY
	QUESTIONS
	PROBLEMS
16 Waves—I
	16-1 TRANSVERSE WAVES
	16-2 WAVE SPEED ON A STRETCHED STRING
	16-3 ENERGY AND POWER OF A WAVE TRAVELING ALONG A STRING
	16-4 THE WAVE EQUATION
	16-5 INTERFERENCE OF WAVES
	16-6 PHASORS
	16-7 STANDING WAVES AND RESONANCE
	REVIEW & SUMMARY
	QUESTIONS
	PROBLEMS
17 Waves—II
	17-1 SPEED OF SOUND
	17-2 TRAVELING SOUND WAVES
	17-3 INTERFERENCE
	17-4 INTENSITY AND SOUND LEVEL
	17-5 SOURCES OF MUSICAL SOUND
	17-6 BEATS
	17-7 THE DOPPLER EFFECT
	17-8 SUPERSONIC SPEEDS, SHOCK WAVES
	REVIEW & SUMMARY
	QUESTIONS
	PROBLEMS
18 Temperature, Heat, and the First Law of Thermodynamics
	18-1 TEMPERATURE
	18-2 THE CELSIUS AND FAHRENHEIT SCALES
	18-3 THERMAL EXPANSION
	18-4 ABSORPTION OF HEAT
	18-5 THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
	18-6 HEAT TRANSFER MECHANISMS
	REVIEW & SUMMARY
	QUESTIONS
	PROBLEMS
19 The Kinetic Theory of Gases
	19-1 AVOGADRO’S NUMBER
	19-2 IDEAL GASES
	19-3 PRESSURE, TEMPERATURE, AND RMS SPEED
	19-4 TRANSLATIONAL KINETIC ENERGY
	19-5 MEAN FREE PATH
	19-6 THE DISTRIBUTION OF MOLECULAR SPEEDS
	19-7 THE MOLAR SPECIFIC HEATS OF AN IDEAL GAS
	19-8 DEGREES OF FREEDOM AND MOLAR SPECIFIC HEATS
	19-9 THE ADIABATIC EXPANSION OF AN IDEAL GAS
	REVIEW & SUMMARY
	QUESTIONS
	PROBLEMS
20 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics
	20-1 ENTROPY
	20-2 ENTROPY IN THE REAL WORLD: ENGINES
	20-3 REFRIGERATORS AND REAL ENGINES
	20-4 A STATISTICAL VIEW OF ENTROPY
	REVIEW & SUMMARY
	QUESTIONS
	PROBLEMS
21 Coulomb’s Law
	21-1 COULOMB’S LAW
	21-2 CHARGE IS QUANTIZED
	21-3 CHARGE IS CONSERVED
	REVIEW & SUMMARY
	QUESTIONS
	PROBLEMS
22 Electric Fields
	22-1 THE ELECTRIC FIELD
	22-2 THE ELECTRIC FIELD DUE TO A CHARGED PARTICLE
	22-3 THE ELECTRIC FIELD DUE TO A DIPOLE
	22-4 THE ELECTRIC FIELD DUE TO A LINE OF CHARGE
	22-5 THE ELECTRIC FIELD DUE TO A CHARGED DISK
	22-6 A POINT CHARGE IN AN ELECTRIC FIELD
	22-7 A DIPOLE IN AN ELECTRIC FIELD
	REVIEW & SUMMARY
	QUESTIONS
	PROBLEMS
23 Gauss’ Law
	23-1 ELECTRIC FLUX
	23-2 GAUSS’ LAW
	23-3 A CHARGED ISOLATED CONDUCTOR
	23-4 APPLYING GAUSS’ LAW: CYLINDRICAL SYMMETRY
	23-5 APPLYING GAUSS’ LAW: PLANAR SYMMETRY
	23-6 APPLYING GAUSS’ LAW: SPHERICAL SYMMETRY
	REVIEW & SUMMARY
	QUESTIONS
	PROBLEMS
24 Electric Potential
	24-1 ELECTRIC POTENTIAL
	24-2 EQUIPOTENTIAL SURFACES AND THE ELECTRIC FIELD
	24-3 POTENTIAL DUE TO A CHARGED PARTICLE
	24-4 POTENTIAL DUE TO AN ELECTRIC DIPOLE
	24-5 POTENTIAL DUE TO A CONTINUOUS CHARGE DISTRIBUTION
	24-6 CALCULATING THE FIELD FROM THE POTENTIAL
	24-7 ELECTRIC POTENTIAL ENERGY OF A SYSTEM OF CHARGED PARTICLES
	24-8 POTENTIAL OF A CHARGED ISOLATED CONDUCTOR
	REVIEW & SUMMARY
	QUESTIONS
	PROBLEMS
25 Capacitance
	25-1 CAPACITANCE
	25-2 CALCULATING THE CAPACITANCE
	25-3 CAPACITORS IN PARALLEL AND IN SERIES
	25-4 ENERGY STORED IN AN ELECTRIC FIELD
	25-5 CAPACITOR WITH A DIELECTRIC
	25-6 DIELECTRICS AND GAUSS’ LAW
	REVIEW & SUMMARY
	QUESTIONS
	PROBLEMS
26 Current and Resistance
	26-1 ELECTRIC CURRENT
	26-2 CURRENT DENSITY
	26-3 RESISTANCE AND RESISTIVITY
	26-4 OHM’S LAW
	26-5 POWER, SEMICONDUCTORS, SUPERCONDUCTORS
	REVIEW & SUMMARY
	QUESTIONS
	PROBLEMS
27 Circuits
	27-1 SINGLE-LOOP CIRCUITS
	27-2 MULTILOOP CIRCUITS
	27-3 THE AMMETER AND THE VOLTMETER
	27-4 RC CIRCUITS
	REVIEW & SUMMARY
	QUESTIONS
	PROBLEMS
28 Magnetic Fields
	28-1 MAGNETIC FIELDS AND THE DEFINITION OF B
	28-2 CROSSED FIELDS: DISCOVERY OF THE ELECTRON
	28-3 CROSSED FIELDS: THE HALL EFFECT
	28-4 A CIRCULATING CHARGED PARTICLE
	28-5 CYCLOTRONS AND SYNCHROTRONS
	28-6 MAGNETIC FORCE ON A CURRENT-CARRYING WIRE
	28-7 TORQUE ON A CURRENT LOOP
	28-8 THE MAGNETIC DIPOLE MOMENT
	REVIEW & SUMMARY
	QUESTIONS
	PROBLEMS
29 Magnetic Fields Due to Currents
	29-1 MAGNETIC FIELD DUE TO A CURRENT
	29-2 FORCE BETWEEN TWO PARALLEL CURRENTS
	29-3 AMPERE’S LAW
	29-4 SOLENOIDS AND TOROIDS
	29-5 A CURRENT-CARRYING COIL AS A MAGNETIC DIPOLE
	REVIEW & SUMMARY
	QUESTIONS
	PROBLEMS
30 Induction and Inductance
	30-1 FARADAY’S LAW AND LENZ’S LAW
	30-2 INDUCTION AND ENERGY TRANSFERS
	30-3 INDUCED ELECTRIC FIELDS
	30-4 INDUCTORS AND INDUCTANCE
	30-5 SELF-INDUCTION
	30-6 RL CIRCUITS
	30-7 ENERGY STORED IN A MAGNETIC FIELD
	30-8 ENERGY DENSITY OF A MAGNETIC FIELD
	30-9 MUTUAL INDUCTION
	REVIEW & SUMMARY
	QUESTIONS
	PROBLEMS
31 Electromagnetic Oscillations and Alternating Current
	31-1 LC OSCILLATIONS
	31-2 DAMPED OSCILLATIONS IN AN RLC CIRCUIT
	31-3 FORCED OSCILLATIONS OF THREE SIMPLE CIRCUITS
	31-4 THE SERIES RLC CIRCUIT
	31-5 POWER IN ALTERNATING-CURRENT CIRCUITS
	31-6 TRANSFORMERS
	REVIEW & SUMMARY
	QUESTIONS
	PROBLEMS
32 Maxwell’s Equations; Magnetism of Matter
	32-1 GAUSS’ LAW FOR MAGNETIC FIELDS
	32-2 INDUCED MAGNETIC FIELDS
	32-3 DISPLACEMENT CURRENT
	32-4 MAGNETS
	32-5 MAGNETISM AND ELECTRONS
	32-6 DIAMAGNETISM
	32-7 PARAMAGNETISM
	32-8 FERROMAGNETISM
	REVIEW & SUMMARY
	QUESTIONS
	PROBLEMS
33 Electromagnetic Waves
	33-1 ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES
	33-2 ENERGY TRANSPORT AND THE POYNTING VECTOR
	33-3 RADIATION PRESSURE
	33-4 POLARIZATION
	33-5 REFLECTION AND REFRACTION
	33-6 TOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION
	33-7 POLARIZATION BY REFLECTION
	REVIEW & SUMMARY
	QUESTIONS
	PROBLEMS
34 Images
	34-1 IMAGES AND PLANE MIRRORS
	34-2 SPHERICAL MIRRORS
	34-3 SPHERICAL REFRACTING SURFACES
	34-4 THIN LENSES
	34-5 OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS
	34-6 THREE PROOFS
	REVIEW & SUMMARY
	QUESTIONS
	PROBLEMS
35 Interference
	35-1 LIGHT AS A WAVE
	35-2 YOUNG’S INTERFERENCE EXPERIMENT
	35-3 INTERFERENCE AND DOUBLE-SLIT INTENSITY
	35-4 INTERFERENCE FROM THIN FILMS
	35-5 MICHELSON’S INTERFEROMETER
	REVIEW & SUMMARY
	QUESTIONS
	PROBLEMS
36 Diffraction
	36-1 SINGLE-SLIT DIFFRACTION
	36-2 INTENSITY IN SINGLE-SLIT DIFFRACTION
	36-3 DIFFRACTION BY A CIRCULAR APERTURE
	36-4 DIFFRACTION BY A DOUBLE SLIT
	36-5 DIFFRACTION GRATINGS
	36-6 GRATINGS: DISPERSION AND RESOLVING POWER
	36-7 X-RAY DIFFRACTION
	REVIEW & SUMMARY
	QUESTIONS
	PROBLEMS
37 Relativity
	37-1 SIMULTANEITY AND TIME DILATION
	37-2 THE RELATIVITY OF LENGTH
	37-3 THE LORENTZ TRANSFORMATION
	37-4 THE RELATIVITY OF VELOCITIES
	37-5 DOPPLER EFFECT FOR LIGHT
	37-6 MOMENTUM AND ENERGY
	REVIEW & SUMMARY
	QUESTIONS
	PROBLEMS
38 Photons and Matter Waves
	38-1 THE PHOTON, THE QUANTUM OF LIGHT
	38-2 THE PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT
	38-3 PHOTONS, MOMENTUM, COMPTON SCATTERING, LIGHT INTERFERENCE
	38-4 THE BIRTH OF QUANTUM PHYSICS
	38-5 ELECTRONS AND MATTER WAVES
	38-6 SCHRÖDINGER’S EQUATION
	38-7 HEISENBERG’S UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE
	38-8 REFLECTION FROM A POTENTIAL STEP
	38-9 TUNNELING THROUGH A POTENTIAL BARRIER
	REVIEW & SUMMARY
	QUESTIONS
	PROBLEMS
39 More About Matter Waves
	39-1 ENERGIES OF A TRAPPED ELECTRON
	39-2 WAVE FUNCTIONS OF A TRAPPED ELECTRON
	39-3 AN ELECTRON IN A FINITE WELL
	39-4 TWO- AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL ELECTRON TRAPS
	39-5 THE HYDROGEN ATOM
	REVIEW & SUMMARY
	QUESTIONS
	PROBLEMS
40 All About Atoms
	40-1 PROPERTIES OF ATOMS
	40-2 THE STERN-GERLACH EXPERIMENT
	40-3 MAGNETIC RESONANCE
	40-4 EXCLUSION PRINCIPLE AND MULTIPLE ELECTRONS IN A TRAP
	40-5 BUILDING THE PERIODIC TABLE
	40-6 X RAYS AND THE ORDERING OF THE ELEMENTS
	40-7 LASERS
	REVIEW & SUMMARY
	QUESTIONS
	PROBLEMS
41 Conduction of Electricity in Solids
	41-1 THE ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS
	41-2 SEMICONDUCTORS AND DOPING
	41-3 THE p-n JUNCTION AND THE TRANSISTOR
	REVIEW & SUMMARY
	QUESTIONS
	PROBLEMS
42 Nuclear Physics
	42-1 DISCOVERING THE NUCLEUS
	42-2 SOME NUCLEAR PROPERTIES
	42-3 RADIOACTIVE DECAY
	42-4 ALPHA DECAY
	42-5 BETA DECAY
	42-6 RADIOACTIVE DATING
	42-7 MEASURING RADIATION DOSAGE
	42-8 NUCLEAR MODELS
	REVIEW & SUMMARY
	QUESTIONS
	PROBLEMS
43 Energy from the Nucleus
	43-1 NUCLEAR FISSION
	43-2 THE NUCLEAR REACTOR
	43-3 A NATURAL NUCLEAR REACTOR
	43-4 THERMONUCLEAR FUSION: THE BASIC PROCESS
	43-5 THERMONUCLEAR FUSION IN THE SUN AND OTHER STARS
	43-6 CONTROLLED THERMONUCLEAR FUSION
	REVIEW & SUMMARY
	QUESTIONS
	PROBLEMS
44 Quarks, Leptons, and the Big Bang
	44-1 GENERAL PROPERTIES OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES
	44-2 LEPTONS, HADRONS, AND STRANGENESS
	44-3 QUARKS AND MESSENGER PARTICLES
	44-4 COSMOLOGY
	REVIEW & SUMMARY
	QUESTIONS
	PROBLEMS
APPENDICES
	A: The International System of Units (SI)
	B: Some Fundamental Constants of Physics
	C: Some Astronomical Data
	D: Conversion Factors
	E: Mathematical Formulas
	F: Properties of The Elements
	G: Periodic Table of The Elements
ANSWERS: To Checkpoints and Odd-Numbered Questions and Problems
INDEX
                        

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