Download Hariqbal Singh - Radiology for Undergraduates and General Practitioners PDF

TitleHariqbal Singh - Radiology for Undergraduates and General Practitioners
File Size7.2 MB
Total Pages250
Table of Contents
                            Front Matter
1. Musculoskeletal System
2. Chest
3. Heart
4. Vascular System
5. Gastrointestinal Tract and Abdomen
6. Hepatobiliary System, Pancreas and Spleen
7. Urogenital System
8. Obstetrics and Gynecology
9. Central Nervous System
10. Soft Tissues
11. Interventional Imaging
12. Miscellaneous
13. PCPNDT Act
14. Syllabus
Document Text Contents
Page 2

for Undergraduates and General Practitioners

Page 125

112 Radiology for Undergraduates and General Practitioners

hepatIC heMangIoMa

Hemangioma is the most common benign tumor of the liver. The classic
findings of hemangioma on CT show hyperattenuation similar to that of
vessels; on dynamic contrast-enhanced CT peripheral globular enhance-
ment and a centripetal fill in pattern with the attenuation of enhancing
areas identical to that of the aorta and blood pool (Figs 6.5A to D).
On USG the need for contrast arises when the lesions are isoechoic to
the background parenchyma or are diffusely isoechoic and are difficult to
pick up or be characterized by B mode ultrasound. Therefore, the use of
USG contrast has significantly changed the capability of ultrasound imag-
ing. A 17-year-old male reported with general weakness, was subjected
to ultrasound followed by contrast enhanced scan with SONOVUE by
BRACCO (Figs 6.6A to E).

Figs 6.5a to D: Well-defined hyperdense lesion is seen in liver (arrow) that shows
peripheral enhancement in arterial phase and progressive centripetal fill in delayed phases



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113Hepatobiliary System, Pancreas and Spleen

Figs 6.6a to e: (A) On ultrasound right lobe of liver shows a well-defined hypoechoic lesion;
(B) Intravenous contrast injected, in arterial phase shows outlining the edges of the lesion
seen as increased echogenicity of the margins of the lesion; (C) Gradually the circulating
contrast shows early filling up the lesion more in the anterior aspect. As a result of peripheral
filling there is some change in shape and outline of the lesion; (D and E) Show excellent filling
of the lesion resulting in echogenicity isodense to the hepatic tissue which was hypoechoic
in precontrast image

hepatoCeLLULar CarCInoMa

It is the most common primary malignant hepatic tumor.
The primary etiologic factors include hepatitis B virus and aflatoxin
exposure. In areas of low incidence it occurs in old age and most patients
have underlying cirrhosis caused by alcohol abuse, hemochromatosis or
toxin exposure.
Symptoms are insidious in onset and include malaise, fever and
abdominal pain. Jaundice may be there with elevated alpha fetoprotein.

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236 Radiology for Under Graduates and General Practitioners

Redundant and tortuous aorta 69
angiograms 227
cell carcinoma 143
failure in bilateral renal involvement 134
hematoma 141
injury 126
tubular acidosis 10
tumors 126
Retrocaval ureter 126, 135
Rheumatoid arthritis 61
Richter’s hernia 96, 96f
Rickets 8
Root of coracoid process 216
Round pneumonias 61
Roundworm infestation 90
Rupture of extensor pollicis longus 13
Ryle’s tube aspiration 94


Sarcoidosis 61, 178
Scanning technique 150
Scaphoid fracture 6, 6f
Sclerosing osteomyelitis of Garre 17
Scurvy 225
Segmental fracture 2, 3f
Seminal vesicle calcification 179
Sepsis and renal failure 141
Septated uterus 149
arthritis 18
emboli 61
Sequestrum 17
Severe hematuria 141
Shaft of humerus 216
Short tau inversion recovery sequence 212
Shoulder joint 217f
Sickle cell disease 225

bone cyst 22
cyst 157
hepatic cyst 107
Sistrunk operation 172
Situs inversus 55
deformities 10
metastasis 28
trauma 226
Small intestine bypass surgery 8
Smith’s fracture 7, 7f
Soft tissue calcification 181
Solitary pulmonary nodule 59, 60, 60f
Sonohysterography 164
Speckled calcification on right side
in bursa 184f
Spiral fracture of shaft of humerus 5
Splenectomy 123
Splenoportography 226
Splenunculus 123
Staghorn calculus 130
on left side 131f
Staphyloccoccus aureus 14
Stenosis 89
Streptococcus pneumonia 42, 124
Struge Weber syndrome 75
Subperiosteal and endosteal cellular
proliferation 4
Sudeck’s osteodystrophy 13
Supracondylar fracture 5f
of humerus 5
Suprahyoid 172


Tension pneumothorax 50
Tertiary contractions in esophagus 89
Tetralogy of Fallot 64

Page 250


Thalassemia 225
Thermoluminescent dosimeter 206
Thickening of ileocecal valve lips 99f
Thin walled bilateral follicular cysts 152f
Thoracic aortic aneurysm 69
Thyroglossal cyst 172
acropathy 19
cartilage 172
Thyrotoxicosis 11
Tracheoesophageal fistula 77, 78f
Transabdominal ultrasound 150
Transjugular intrahepatic
portosystemic stent 192
Transvaginal ultrasound 150
Traumatic contusion 42
Tubal blockage 164
Tuberculosis of bone and spine 225
Tuberculous arthritis 225
Tumors of lung 56
Turner’s syndrome 129
Twin pregnancy 151f
Types of
choledochal cysts 119f
dermoid cysts 175
gallstones 118
periosteal reaction 19
sequestra 17


Ulcer disease 226
Ulcerative colitis 226
Ulnar nerve damage 13
Ultrasonography in cholecystitis 116
Ultrasound in first trimester of

pregnancy 150
Undescended testicle 140
Unicornuate uterus 148
Unilateral hydronephrosis 133, 134f
Units of radiation 202
Upper urinary tract infection 138
Ureterocele 126, 136
Urogenital system 125
Uterine malformations 148
and adnexal masses 158f
didelphys 148, 148f


Valvular heart disease 226
calcifications 74
system 69
Venous insufficiency 19
Ventricular septal defect 66
Vitamin D deficiency 8
Von Hippel-lindau disease 143


Wangentstein’s invertogram 88
Weak abdominal wall 83
Wegener’s granulomatosis 61
Whipple’s disease 179
Wilm’s tumor 141
and hand 217t, 219f
Colle’s fracture 12


X-ray spine 21

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