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TitleIntroduction to English Phonetics and Phonology
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Table of Contents
Table of Contents
1 Introduction: Phonetics and Phonology
	1.1 Phonetics and phonology
	1.2 Sounds and (etters
	1.3 The structure of this book
	1.4 Exercises
	1.5 Further reading
2 Speech production
	2.1 The respiratory system
	2.2 The phonatory system
	2.3 The articulatory system
	2.4 Classifying speech sounds
	2.5 Articulation in connected speech
	2.6 The role of the brain
	2.7 Learning the production of speech
		2.7.1 Speech production in first language acquisition (advanced reading)
		2.7.2 Speech production in second language acquisition and teaching(advanced reading)
	2.8 Methods of researching speech production (advanced reading)
	2.9 Exercises
	2.10 Further reading
3 The Phonology ofEnglish: Phonemes, Syllables and Words
	3.1 The phonemes of English
		3.1.1 The consonants of RP and GA and their transcription
		3.1.2 The allophonic variation of consonants in RP and GA
		3.1.3 The vowels of RP and GA and their transcription
		3.1.4 Phonemic and phonetic transcription
		3.1.5 Phonetic features (advanced reading)
	3.2 The English syllable
		3.2.1 Types of syllables and phonotactic rules of English
		3.2.2 Syllabification in English
		3.2.3 Stress and speech rhythm in English
	3.3 The phonologieal word in English
		3.3.1 Word stress in English
		3.3.2 Phonological processes occurring at the level of the pword (advancedreading)
	3.4 Theories of the acquisition of English phonology (advanced reading)
		3.4.1 English phonology in first language acquisition
		3.4.2 English phonology in second language acquisition
	3.5 Exercises
	3.6 Further reading
4 The Phonology of English: Intonation
	4.1 Intonational phrasing in English
	4.2 Nucleus placement in English
	4.3 English tones and their usage
		4.3.1 The tones of English and their transcription
		4.3.2 The function of English tones and tunes
		4.3.3 Pitch range, key and register
	4.4 The acquisition and teaching of English intonation (advanced reading)
		4.4.1 The acquisition of English intonation in first language acquisition
		4.4.2 The acquisition of English intonation in second language acquisition
		4.4.3 Teaching English intonation
	4.5 Exercises
	4.6 Further Reading
5 Acoustic properties of English
	5.1 Acoustic properties of sound
		5.1.1 Acoustic properties of sound waves
		5.1.2 Simple and complex waveforms (advanced reading)
	5.2 The acoustic properties of English vowels
	5.3 The acoustic properties of English consonants
	5.4 Acoustic aspects of connected speech in English (advanced reading)
	5.5 The acoustic properties of English intonation
		5.5.1 The acoustic properties of intonation phrases in English
		5.5.2 The acoustic properties of accents in English
		5.5.3 Measuring pitch and pitch movement in English
	5.6 Acoustic properties of L2 learner English and the use of acousticphonetics in pronunciation teaching (advanced reading)
	5.7 How to make a good speech recording
	5.8 Exercises
	5.9 Further Reading
6 Speech perception
	6.1 The outer ear
	6.2 The middle ear
	6.3 The inner ear
	6.4 The internal auditory system
	6.5 The perception of loudness, pitch and voice quality
	6.6 Measuring hearing sensitivity
	6.7 Theories of speech perception (advanced reading)
	6.8 Speech perception and language acquisition (advanced reading)
		6.8.1 Speech perception in first language acquisition
		6.8.2 Speech perception in second language acquisition and teaching
	6.9 Exercises
	6.10 Further reading
7 List of References
8 Index
Document Text Contents
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Introduction to English Phonetics and Phonology

Introduction to English Phonetics and Phonology

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Introduction to English Phonetics and Phonology

The phonology of English: intonation 107

dog'. The end of an intonation phrase - an intonation phrase boundary - is
sometimes but not always signalIed by a short pause. (Section 5.5.1 explains
other ways of indicating the boundaries of intonation phrases, such as final
syllable lengthening, anacrusis and change of pitch level).

All examples in this chapter can be listened
to on the CD-ROM. Please bear in mind that
these examples were produced by a speaker
reading printed sentences. As explained
below, intonation in spontaneous English
speech may show different characteristics.


When considering the function of intonational phrasing it is important to be
aware of the fact that there are many different kinds of spoken language, many
different kinds of speaking styles. Reading a text aloud and reciting a poem or a
speech leamed by heart require different cognitive processes than telling a story
or participating in a discussion. The first types of speaking style are called
reading style and prepared speech respectively, whereas the second type of
spoken language is referred to as spontaneous or free speech. In spontaneous
speech, in contrast to prepared speech, speakers have to speak and plan their
speech at the same time. While articulating one portion of the 'message' the
speaker will already have to plan and prepare what to say next. Spontaneous
speech is therefore delivered in chunks, and 'speaking time' typically consists of
a large part (usually up to 30%) ofpauses. Clearly, the speaking style influences
intonational phrasing. In spontaneous speech, speakers break their message up
into smaller chunks than in reading style or prepared speech - both because they
need time to plan ahead and because it allows listeners to follow their speech.
The words joined into these chunks usually form one piece of information, a
meaningful unit called topic unit. Often, in spontaneous speech, each intonation
phrase corresponds to one meaningful unit. When producing prepared speech or
reading a printed text aloud, speakers do not need to plan what to say next. They
do not need time to search for the right words and put them into a grammatical
order. Consequently, this type of speech is faster and contains fewer pauses.
Moreover, intonational phrasing in this type of speech has a very elose
relationship with punctuation and the grammatical structures of written

When producing speech, speakers join several intonation phrases together
and produce longer utterances and discourse. With intonation phrase boundaries,
speakers can indicate how elosely the individual intonation phrases in an

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Introduction to English Phonetics and Phonology

108 Chapter4

utterance belong together. Especially when reading out a text, speakers vary the
length of pauses between intonation phrases according to the meaning
relationship between these intonation phrases.

(12) He washed 1 and fed the dog 11 Then he tumed to his own mealll

In example (12), the intonation phrase boundary between the words washed and
and is shorter (and therefore called a minor boundary) than that between dog
and then (which is referred to as a major boundary). A minor intonation phrase
boundary is transcribed with a single I; a major intonation phrase boundary is
transcribed with all. The major boundary in example (12) indicates the
beginning of a new topic - the speaker's now tuming to his own meal.

There are many other examples of utterances in which speakers use
intonational phrasing in order to indicate the structure of their speech.
Coordinated structures, for example, are usually separated by intonation phrase
boundaries. This is shown in example (13), which represents an utterance with a
coordinate structure consisting of the two components "Y ou could put it over
there" and "or leave it where it is". Especially when the two components of such
structures are placed in contrast to each other by the speaker, they are separated
by an intonation phrase boundary.

(13) Y ou could put it over there 1 or leave it where it is 11

Similarly, items in enumerations are often produced as separate intonation
phrases. This is shown in example (14). It is, however, also possible to produce
such lists as a single intonation phrase, as shown in example (15).

(14) 1'11 buy tomatoes Ilettuce 1 a cucumber 1 and some carrots 11
(15) Her trousers are red blue green and yellow 11

In an utterance, 'heavy' subjects that consist of noun phrases with many words
are typica11y produced as separate intonation phrases in English. This is
illustrated in example (16), in which an intonation phrase boundary is produced
after the heavy subject "The inhabitants of our beautiful village" .

(16) The inhabitants of our beautiful village 1 do not care for this bypass 11

Similarly, tags in questions tend to be separated by intonation phrase
boundaries. This is shown in examples (17) and (18), which both have so-called
reverse-polarity tags, i.e. the verb in the tag is negated when the verb in the main
clause is not (example 17) and vice versa (example 18).

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Introduction to English Phonetics and Phonology


lengthening 167
light 77
onset 75
open 77
rhyme 75
stressed 83
strong 85
unstressed 83
weak 85

systems of speech organs 13
tail 119
tap 27,30
teeth 25
thresho1d ofhearing 190
thyroid cartilage 1 7
timbre 19,191
ToB! 120
tone 117, 171

tone inventory 11 7, 118
tone language 20, 117
tongue 26

back 26
blade 26
front 26
root 26
tip 26

topic unit 107
topicalisation 110
trachea 14
transcription 67

interlinear 119
phonemic 67
phonetic 68

trill 27,30
triphthong 60
trochaic pattern 97
tune 125
undershoot 35
underspecification theory 73

units of sound structure 49
unreleased 50
upspeak 123
utterance 106
uvula 25
uvular 31
velum 25
vocal folds 17

vibration 18
vocal tract 23
voice 18,21
voice onset time 159, 195
voiced 18
voiceless 18, 21
vowel 28,52

back 29,61
central 29,61
chart 61
deletion 36, 168
front 29,61
height 29,64
lax 73
low 29
mid 29
phonemic 1ength 64
reduction 36, 168
tense 73

vowel chart 61
vowel deletion 168
waveform 139, 142

aperiodic 149
complex 142
periodic 142
simple 142
sinusodia1 142

weak and strong forms 85
whisper 22
word recognition 198


Page 229

Introduction to English Phonetics and Phonology

Textbooks in English Language and Linguistics (TELL)

Edited by Joybrato Mukherjee and Magnus Huber

Band 1 Ulrike Gut: Introduction to English Phonetics and Phonology. 2009.

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