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Table of Contents
                            ITIL® Continual Service Improvement
	Contents
	List of figures
	List of tables
	Foreword
	Preface
	Acknowledgements
	1 Introduction
		1.1 OVERVIEW
			Figure 1.1 The ITIL service lifecycle
			1.1.1 Purpose and objectives of CSI
			1.1.2 Scope
			1.1.3 Usage
			1.1.4 Value to business
			1.1.5 Target audience
		1.2 CONTEXT
			1.2.1 Service strategy
			1.2.2 Service design
			1.2.3 Service transition
			1.2.4 Service operation
			1.2.5 Continual service improvement
		1.3 ITIL IN RELATION TO OTHER PUBLICATIONS IN THE BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE PORTFOLIO
		1.4 WHY IS ITIL SO SUCCESSFUL?
		Figure 1.2 ITIL’s relationship with other Best Management Practice guides
		1.5 CHAPTER SUMMARY
	2 Service management as a practice
		2.1 SERVICES AND SERVICE MANAGEMENT
			2.1.1 Services
			Figure 2.1 Conversation about the definition and meaning of services
			2.1.2 Service management
			2.1.3 IT service management
			2.1.4 Service providers
			2.1.5 Stakeholders in service management
			2.1.6 Utility and warranty
			2.1.7 Best practices in the public domain
			Figure 2.2 Logic of value creation through services
			Figure 2.3 Sources of service management best practice
		2.2 BASIC CONCEPTS
			2.2.1 Assets, resources and capabilities
			2.2.2 Processes
			Figure 2.4 Examples of capabilities and resources
			Figure 2.5 Process model
			2.2.3 Organizing for service management
			2.2.4 The service portfolio
			2.2.5 Knowledge management and the SKMS
			Figure 2.6 The service portfolio and its contents
		2.3 GOVERNANCE AND MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
			2.3.1 Governance
			2.3.2 Management systems
			Figure 2.7 Architectural layers of an SKMS
		2.4 THE SERVICE LIFECYCLE
			Figure 2.8 Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle
			2.4.1 Specialization and coordination across the lifecycle
			2.4.2 Processes through the service lifecycle
			Table 2.1 The processes described in each core ITIL publication
			Figure 2.9 Integration across the service lifecycle
			Figure 2.10 Continual service improvement and the service lifecycle
	3 Continual service improvement principles
		3.1 CONTINUAL SERVICE IMPROVEMENT APPROACH
			3.1.1 Business questions for CSI
			Figure 3.1 Continual service improvement approach
		3.2 CSI AND ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE
		3.3 OWNERSHIP
		3.4 CSI REGISTER
		3.5 EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL DRIVERS
		3.6 SERVICE LEVEL MANAGEMENT
		3.7 KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
		3.8 THE DEMING CYCLE
		Figure 3.2 Knowledge management leads to better IT decisions
		3.9 SERVICE MEASUREMENT
			3.9.1 Baselines
			3.9.2 Why do we measure?
			3.9.3 The seven-step improvement process
			Figure 3.3 Why do we measure?
			Figure 3.4 The seven-step improvement process
			Figure 3.5 Knowledge spiral – a gathering activity
		3.10 IT GOVERNANCE
		Figure 3.6 Enterprise governance (source: CIMA)
		3.11 FRAMEWORKS, MODELS, STANDARDS AND QUALITY SYSTEMS
			3.11.1 Which one should I choose?
			Table 3.1 CSI inputs and outputs by lifecycle stage
		3.12 CSI INPUTS AND OUTPUTS
	4 Continual service improvement processes
		4.1 THE SEVEN-STEP IMPROVEMENT PROCESS
			4.1.1 Purpose and objectives
			4.1.2 Scope
			4.1.3 Value to business
			4.1.4 Policies, principles and basic concepts
			Table 4.1 Policy template example
			4.1.5 Process activities, methods and techniques
			Figure 4.1 From vision to measurements
			Figure 4.2 Monitoring and data collection procedures
			Table 4.2 Monitoring and data collection procedures
			Figure 4.3 Common procedures for processing the data
			Table 4.3 Procedures for processing the data
			Figure 4.4 Service level achievement chart
			Figure 4.5 First- to fourth-order drivers
			4.1.6 Triggers, inputs, outputs and interfaces
			4.1.7 Role of other processes in gathering and processing the data (Steps 3 and 4)
			4.1.8 Role of other processes in analysing the data (Step 5)
			4.1.9 Role of other processes in presenting and using the information (Step 6)
			4.1.10 Role of other processes in implementing improvement (Step 7)
			4.1.11 Information management
			4.1.12 Critical success factors and key performance indicators
			4.1.13 Challenges and risks
	5 Continual service improvement methods and techniques
		5.1 METHODS AND TECHNIQUES
			5.1.1 Effort and cost
			5.1.2 Implementation review and evaluation
		5.2 ASSESSMENTS
			5.2.1 When to assess
			5.2.2 What to assess and how
			Table 5.1 Pros and cons of assessment approaches
			5.2.3 Advantages and risks of assessments
			Figure 5.1 The relationship of services, processes and systems
			5.2.4 Value of processes versus maturity of processes
			Figure 5.2 The value of a process versus the maturity of a process
			5.2.5 Gap analysis
		5.3 BENCHMARKING
			5.3.1 Benchmarking procedure
			5.3.2 Benchmarking costs
			5.3.3 Value of benchmarking
			5.3.4 Benchmarking as a lever
			5.3.5 Benchmarking as a steering instrument
			5.3.6 Benchmarking categories
			5.3.7 Benefits
			5.3.8 Who is involved?
			5.3.9 What to benchmark?
			5.3.10 Comparison with industry norms
			5.3.11 Benchmark approach
			Table 5.2 Average results of over 100 process assessments before improvement
			Table 5.3 CMMI maturity model
		5.4 SERVICE MEASUREMENT
			Figure 5.3 Availability reporting
			5.4.1 Design and develop a service measurement framework
			5.4.2 Different levels of measurement and reporting
			Figure 5.4 Service measurement model
			Figure 5.5 Technology domain versus service management
			5.4.3 Service management process measurement
			Figure 5.6 Service management model
			5.4.4 Creating a measurement framework grid
			Table 5.4 Key performance indicators of the value of service management processes
			Table 5.5 High-level goals and key performance indicators
		5.5 METRICS
			5.5.1 How many CSFs and KPIs?
			Figure 5.7 From vision to measurement
			5.5.2 Tension metrics
			5.5.3 Goals and metrics
			Table 5.6 Examples of service quality metrics
			5.5.4 Interpreting and using metrics
			Figure 5.8 Number of incidents opened by service desk over time
			Figure 5.9 Comparison of incidents opened and resolved on first contact by the service desk
			Table 5.7 Response times for three service desks
			5.5.5 Using measurement and metrics
			5.5.6 Creating scorecards and reports
			Figure 5.10 Deriving measurements and metrics from goals and objectives
			Table 5.8 An example of a summary report format
			Figure 5.11 Reported outage minutes for a service
			5.5.7 Setting targets
			Table 5.9 Service report of outage minutes compared to goal
			Table 5.10 Percentage of incidents meeting target time for service restoration
			Table 5.11 Sample key performance indicators
			5.5.8 Balanced scorecard
			Figure 5.12 IT balanced scorecard
			Table 5.12 Service desk balanced scorecard example
			5.5.9 SWOT analysis
		5.6 RETURN ON INVESTMENT
			5.6.1 Creating a return on investment
			Table 5.13 SWOT analysis
			Table 5.14 Sample SWOT analysis for CSI
			5.6.2 Establishing the business case
			5.6.3 Expectations – what’s in it for me?
			5.6.4 Business cases in a data-poor environment
			5.6.5 Measuring benefits achieved
		5.7 SERVICE REPORTING
			5.7.1 Reporting policy and rules
			5.7.2 Right content for the right audience
		5.8 CSI AND OTHER SERVICE MANAGEMENT PROCESSES
			5.8.1 Availability management
			Figure 5.13 The expanded incident lifecycle
			5.8.2 Capacity management
			5.8.3 Business capacity management
			5.8.4 Service capacity management
			5.8.5 Component capacity management
			Figure 5.14 Connecting business and service capacity management
			Table 5.15 Departmental requirements
			Figure 5.15 Business capacity growth model
			Figure 5.16 Connecting service and component capacity management
			Figure 5.17 Connecting businesses, service and component capacity management
			5.8.6 Workload management and demand management
			5.8.7 Iterative activities of capacity management
			5.8.8 IT service continuity management
			Figure 5.18 Capacity management activities
			5.8.9 Problem management
			5.8.10 Change management, release and deployment management
			5.8.11 Knowledge management
			5.8.12 Risk management
			Figure 5.19 Sources of knowledge
			Figure 5.20 Reasons for a risk management process
			Table 5.16 Risk register
		5.9 SUMMARY
	6 Organizing for continual service improvement
		6.1 ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
		6.2 FUNCTIONS
		6.3 ROLES
			6.3.1 Generic service owner role
			6.3.2 Generic process owner role
			6.3.3 Generic process manager role
			6.3.4 Generic process practitioner role
			6.3.5 CSI manager
			6.3.6 Seven-step improvement roles
			Figure 6.1 Activities and skill levels needed for continual service improvement
			Table 6.1 Skills involved in Step 1 – Identify the strategy for improvement
			Table 6.2 Skills involved in Step 2 – Define what you will measure
			Table 6.3 Skills involved in Step 3 – Gather the data
			Table 6.4 Skills involved in Step 4 – Process the data
			Table 6.5 Skills involved in Step 5 – Analyse the information and data
			Table 6.6 Skills involved in Step 6 – Present and use the information
			Table 6.7 Skills involved in Step 7 – Implement improvement
			6.3.7 Business relationship manager
			Table 6.8 Comparison of CSI manager, service level manager, service owner and business relationship manager roles
		6.4 CUSTOMER ENGAGEMENT
		6.5 RESPONSIBILITY MODEL – RACI
		Figure 6.2 Service management roles and customer engagement
		6.6 COMPETENCE AND TRAINING
			6.6.1 Competence and skills for service management
			Table 6.9 An example of a simple RACI matrix
			6.6.2 Competence and skills framework
			6.6.3 Training
	7 Technology considerations
		7.1 TOOLS TO SUPPORT CSI ACTIVITIES
			7.1.1 IT service management suites
			Figure 7.1 The application of the architectural layers of the CMS
			7.1.2 Systems and network management
			7.1.3 Event management
			7.1.4 Automated incident/problem resolution
			7.1.5 Knowledge management
			7.1.6 Requesting services (service catalogue and workflow)
			7.1.7 Performance management
			7.1.8 Application and service performance monitoring
			7.1.9 Statistical analysis tools
			7.1.10 Software version control/software configuration management
			7.1.11 Software test management
			7.1.12 Information security management
			7.1.13 Project and portfolio management
			7.1.14 Financial management for IT services
			Figure 7.2 Service-centric view of the IT enterprise
			7.1.15 Business intelligence/reporting
		7.2 SUMMARY
	8 Implementing continual service improvement
		8.1 CRITICAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR IMPLEMENTING CSI
		8.2 WHERE DO I START?
			8.2.1 Where do I start – the servic eapproach
			8.2.2 Where do I start – the lifecycle approach
			8.2.3 Where do I start – the functional group approach
		8.3 GOVERNANCE
			8.3.1 Business drivers
			8.3.2 Process changes
			Figure 8.1 Process re-engineering changes everything
		8.4 CSI AND ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE
			8.4.1 Create a sense of urgency
			Table 8.1 Eight steps that need to be implemented, and the main reasons why transformation efforts fail (from Kotter, 1996)
			8.4.2 Form a guiding coalition
			8.4.3 Create a vision
			8.4.4 Communicate the vision
			8.4.5 Empower others to act on the vision
			8.4.6 Plan for and create short-term wins
			8.4.7 Consolidate improvements and produce more change
			8.4.8 Institutionalize the change
			8.4.9 Organization culture
		8.5 COMMUNICATION STRATEGY AND PLAN
			8.5.1 Defining a communication plan
			Table 8.2 Table for sample communication plan
			Figure 8.2 Vision becomes blurred
			8.5.2 Communication transformation
			Figure 8.3 CSI roles and inputs
		8.6 SUMMARY
	9 Challenges, risks and critical success factors
		9.1 CHALLENGES
		9.2 CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS
		9.3 RISKS
		9.4 SUMMARY
	Afterword
	Appendix A: Related guidance
		A.1 ITIL GUIDANCE AND WEB SERVICES
		A.2 QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
		A.3 RISK MANAGEMENT
		A.4 GOVERNANCE OF IT
		A.5 COBIT
		A.6 ISO/IEC 20000 SERVICE MANAGEMENT SERIES
		A.7 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT AND GREEN/SUSTAINABLE IT
		A.8 ISO STANDARDS AND PUBLICATIONS FOR IT
		A.9 ITIL AND THE OSI FRAMEWORK
		A.10 PROGRAMME AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT
		A.11 ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE
		A.12 SKILLS FRAMEWORK FOR THE INFORMATION AGE
		A.13 CARNEGIE MELLON: CMMI AND ESCM FRAMEWORK
		A.14 BALANCED SCORECARD
		A.15 SIX SIGMA
	Appendix B: Example of a continual service improvement register
	Appendix C: Risk assessment and management
		C.1 DEFINITION OF RISK AND RISK MANAGEMENT
		C.2 MANAGEMENT OF RISK (M_o_R)
		Figure C.1 The M_o_R framework
		C.3 ISO 31000
		Figure C.2 ISO 31000 risk management process flow
		C.4 ISO/IEC 27001
		C.5 RISK IT
		Figure C.3 ISACA Risk IT process framework
	Appendix D: Examples of inputs and outputs across the service lifecycle
	Abbreviations
	Glossary
	Index
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

ITIL® Continual Service Improvement

www.best-management-practice.com

IT
IL

® C
o

n
tin

u
a

l Se
rvice

Im
p

ro
ve

m
e

n
t

9 780113 313082

ISBN 978-0-11-331308-2

Over time business requirements will change, so even with
successful service operations in place, there is still a need
to re-align service provision with these changing business
needs. What was good enough last year is unlikely to meet
requirements next year; therefore improvement opportunities
need to be constantly assessed and implemented. This
continual cycle of service improvement will help protect against
losing competitive edge and will ensure that the best possible
outcomes are being achieved.

ITIL Continual Service Improvement focuses on the elements
involved in identifying and introducing a cycle of service
management improvements. It provides structure for the
approach to assessing and measuring services, and helps you
to avoid temporary fi xes in favour of a continual improvement
in quality that truly benefi ts the business customer.

2011 edition B
ES

T M
ANAGEM

EN
T PRACTICE PROD

UC
T

7188 ITIL CSI AN Cover V1_3.indd 1-3 11/07/2011 11:54

http://www.best-management-practice.com

Page 131

Continual service improvement methods and techniques | 117

curve 2 and curve 3 is what actually happens? The
result is over-capacity and IT is blamed for poor
planning and for overspending. Consider the
opposite scenario where the business predicts curve
3 and curve 2 is what actually happens. The result is
under-capacity and IT gets blamed for poor planning.

Remember that only one service was reviewed so
far. There are three services in the example. You
need to understand the service and business along
with the component capacity requirements to be
able to identify the true capacity requirements.
More importantly business capacity can be
computed since how much a business unit consumes
a service is known. This is when the infrastructure
required to deliver and support the services can be
properly put in place (see Figures 5.16 and 5.17).

G
ro

w
th

Time

2
1

3

Figure 5.15 Business capacity growth model

S/W PeopleH/W DOC

Component
capacity

Service
capacity

Service CService BService A

Business
process 1

Business
process 4

Business
process 7

S/W PeopleH/W DOC

Business
capacity

32

Marketing

SLAsSLAsSLAsSLAsSLRs

65

Sales

98

Finance

Component
capacity

Service
capacity

Service CService BService A

Figure 5.16 Connecting service and component capacity management

Figure 5.17 Connecting businesses, service and component capacity management

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118 | Continual service improvement methods and techniques

From this point, IT is in a better position to improve
the service provision. In order to do this IT must
start not only to measure but also to influence
the business. Influencing the business is part of
demand management.

5.8.6 Workload management and
demand management
Workload management can be defined as
understanding which customers use what service,
when they use the service, how they use the
service, and finally how using the service impacts
the performance of a single or multiple systems
and/or components that make up a service.

Demand management is often associated
with influencing the end users’ behaviour.
By influencing the end users’ behaviour an
organization can change the workload thus
improving the performance of components that
support IT services. Using demand management
can be an effective way of improving services
without investing a lot of money. A full discussion
of demand management can be found in ITIL
Service Strategy and ITIL Service Design.

There are different ways to influence customer
behaviour. Charging for services is an obvious way,
but it is not always effective. Sometimes people still
need to use the service and will use it regardless of
the price. Putting in place policies regarding proper
usage of the service is another way to influence
customer behaviour; communicating expectations
for IT and the business, educating people on how
to use the service and negotiating maintenance
windows are just as effective in influencing
customers. Putting in place restrictions such as
amount of space allocated for email storage is
another way to influence behaviour.

Consider carefully how you try to influence
a customer’s behaviour and it may become a
negative influence rather than a positive influence.
As an example, if an organization chooses to
charge for every contact to the service desk, this
could create a negative behaviour in that end
users no longer call or email the service desk, but
call second-level support directly, or turn to peer-
to-peer support, which ultimately makes the cost
of support go up, not down. However if the goal
is to move end users to using a new self-service
web-based knowledge system, then with a proper
communication and education plan on using the

new self-service system this could be a positive
influencing experience.

CSI needs to review demand management policies
to ensure that they are still effective. A policy
that was good a couple of years ago may not be
workable or useful today. For example, a few years
ago, large email attachments were uncommon. It
made sense to limit attachments to 2 Mb. Today’s
reality is different.

5.8.7 Iterative activities of capacity
management

5.8.7.1 Trend analysis
Trend analysis can be performed on the resource
utilization and service performance information
that was collected by the service and component
capacity management sub-processes. The data can
be held in a spreadsheet and the graphical, trend
analysis and forecasting facilities used to show the
utilization of a particular resource over a previous
period of time, and how it can be expected to
change in the future. Typically trend analysis only
provides estimates of future resource utilization. It
is less effective in producing an accurate estimate
of response times, in which case either analytical or
simulation modelling should be used.

This activity provides insight into resource
utilization and is used by both CSI and problem
management to identify opportunities for
improvements. Trend analysis is rooted in the data
analysis activity of the measuring process.

It is important to recognize that trend analysis is
also an activity of proactive problem management
(see section 4.4 in ITIL Service Operation).
However, the focus is different. Whereas problem
management focuses on trends in errors and
faults (the past), capacity management is forward
looking. It might be looking for innovation in
storage management, or at expected growth versus
real growth and recommend adjustments.

5.8.7.2 Modelling
Modelling types range from making estimates
based on experience and current resource
utilization information, to pilot studies, prototypes
and full-scale benchmarks. The former are
cheaper and more reasonable for day-to-day small
decisions, while the latter are expensive but may be
advisable when implementing a large new project.

CSI_Chapter_05.indd 48 09/07/2011 10:11

Page 262

ITIL® Continual Service Improvement

www.best-management-practice.com

IT
IL

® C
o

n
tin

u
a

l Se
rvice

Im
p

ro
ve

m
e

n
t

9 780113 313082

ISBN 978-0-11-331308-2

Over time business requirements will change, so even with
successful service operations in place, there is still a need
to re-align service provision with these changing business
needs. What was good enough last year is unlikely to meet
requirements next year; therefore improvement opportunities
need to be constantly assessed and implemented. This
continual cycle of service improvement will help protect against
losing competitive edge and will ensure that the best possible
outcomes are being achieved.

ITIL Continual Service Improvement focuses on the elements
involved in identifying and introducing a cycle of service
management improvements. It provides structure for the
approach to assessing and measuring services, and helps you
to avoid temporary fi xes in favour of a continual improvement
in quality that truly benefi ts the business customer.

2011 edition B
ES

T M
ANAGEM

EN
T PRACTICE PROD

UC
T

7188 ITIL CSI AN Cover V1_3.indd 1-3 11/07/2011 11:54

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