Download James Hall, Kenneth Clark (Ed.)-Dictionary of Subjects and Symbols in Art -Harper & Row (1974) PDF

TitleJames Hall, Kenneth Clark (Ed.)-Dictionary of Subjects and Symbols in Art -Harper & Row (1974)
File Size13.2 MB
Total Pages377
Table of Contents
Introduction by Kenneth Clark
A ckno wledgements
The Dictionary
	Alpha and omega
	Nailing to the Cross
	'O vos omnes qui transitis
	Pallas Athena
	Quack doctor
	Sabine women
	Ubi est thesaurus tuus
	'Vae, vae, vae
	Walk to Emmaus
	Icon Editions
Document Text Contents
Page 1


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STILL LIFE. A winged hour-glass suggests Time's fleetingness. The workshop of
the ALCHEMIST often has an hour-glass.

Hubert (d.727). Bishop of Maastricht, later of Liege. According to a late legend
he was as a young man given to worldly pleasures, especially the chase. While
hunting on Good Friday he was suddenly confronted by a white stag bearing
a crucifix between its antlers. This vision brought about his conversion to Chris-
tianity. The same story was told of EUSTACE and the two are therefore sometimes
difficult to distinguish. As a devotional figure Hubert is dressed in bishop's robes.
His attribute is a stag with a crucifix. It stands beside him or is couched on a book
in his hand. As patron saint of hunters he may also hold a hunting hom. The
scene of his conversion shows him kneeling in the forest before a stag bearing
the crucifix between its homs. Unlike Eustace he features only in the art of
northern Europe, and then only from the 16th cent. Eustace, the Roman soldier,
wears armour; Hubert is generally dressed as a hunter.

Humility (Lat. Humilitas). One of the rarer virtues in religious and secular allegory,
represented as a woman with a LAMB, and treading a CROWN under her foot. She
may hold a GLOBE, her universality. Her downcast look expresses her modesty.
In Gothic sculpture she is opposed by the vice of Pride (Lat. Superbia), who is
depicted as a rider thrown from his horse. In the 13th cent. Humility sometimes
has wings which, together with her bent head, suggest the idea that the humbler
one is, the higher the spirit rises. For the Madonna of Humility, see VIRGIN
MARY (11).

Hunter, usually with bow and quiver, and often dogs. A hunter confronted by a
stag, a crucifix between its antlers, EUSTACE or HUBERT; with a stag at his side,
JULIAN THE HOSPITATOR. A hunter impatient to be off, restrained by nude female,
is Adonis (VENUS, 5). A hunter observing naked Diana and her nymphs, or
turning into a stag, is Actaeon (DIANA, 3). Diana herself is depicted as a huntress.
A hunter grieving over a woman pierced by an arrow, see CEPHALUS AND PROCRIS.
A hind protected from the huntsmen by a saint, see GILES. The unicorn hunted,
see VIRGIN MARY (5). A b o a r h u n t , see MELEAGER.

Hyacinth (1185—1257). A Dominican friar, bom in Silesia, who joined the Order
in Rome, and became a missionary to Poland and neighbouring lands. He is
represented in Dominican art. He kneels before St Dominic to receive the habit
of the Order, before his departure for the north. In baroque painting he kneels
before a vision of the Virgin who is promising to intercede with Christ on his
behalf. Legend credited him with numerous miracles. It was related that during
an attack by Tartar hordes he snatched from his church the monstrance and a
heavy statue of the Virgin and bore them to safety, walking without harm across
the waters of the River Dnieper (or, according to some authorities, the Dniester)-
He is seen accompanied by angels who help bear his load. He was canonized in

Hyacinthus. A young prince of Sparta, loved by Apollo, who cied after being
struck on the head by a discus. The hyacinth flower sprouted where his blood
fell. See APOLLO (11); FLORA (2).

Hylas (Theocritus 13). In Greek mythology a handsome youth, the companion and
servant of Hercules during the expedition of the Argonauts. After they made
landfall one evening he was sent with a pitcher to find fresh water and came
upon a spring where Naiads, the nymphs of fountains and streams, were bathing.
Captivated by his beauty the nymphs dragged him down into the water, and that
was the last anyone saw of him. The scene is a pool, perhaps in moonlight.
Hylas, on the bank or in the water, is trying to resist the embraces of the naked

Page 189

Ignatius of Loyola
nymphs who surround him. An overturned pitcher usually lies nearby.
(Francesco Furini, Pitti Gall., Florence.)

Hypnos , see SLEEP, KINGDOM OF.
learns (Met. 8:183-235). The son of the legendary Athenian craftsman DAEDALUS,

with whom he was imprisoned on the island of Crete. In order to escape,
Daedalus constructed for each of them a pair of wings which were attached to
the shoulders with wax. 'Follow me closely,' said Daedalus, 'and fly neither too
high nor too low.' But Icarus flew near the sun, the wax melted, the wings
dropped off, and he fell into the sea and was drowned. The pair were often
represented in antique art, on Greek vases and Pompeian wall painting. A well-
known Roman relief shows Daedalus, hammer in hand, making a wing while
Icarus holds it steady for him (Villa Albani, Rome). The scene of making or
fixing on the wings occurs also in painting of the Renaissance and later. The
youth is impatient to be off while the older man binds the wings to his shoulders
or perhaps raises a warning finger. The wings are usually attached to the whole
length of each arm, but occasionally in baroque painting they appear to grow,
like angels' wings, from behind the shoulders.

The fall of Icarus. Icarus tumbles headlong out of the sky, scattering feathers.
Daedalus looks up in dismay or flies on unawares. Below is the sea with perhaps
a boat and sailots or a distant harbour. Icarus' fall may form the background
to a landscape in which country people go about their daily work. Sometimes
the sun-god, Helios, drives his chariot overhead. Renaissance moralists used the
theme to teach the danger of going to extremes and the virtue of moderation,
but to others it symbolized man's questing intellectual spirit.

Ignatius of Loyola (c. 1491-1556). Born at Loyola in northern Spain, the son of a
nobleman. As a soldier at the siege of Pampeluna he was permanently lamed by
a wound in the leg. He devoted his convalescence to reading the lives of Christ
and the saints and thereafter turned to the study of religion. His famous and
influential work, the Spiritual Exercises, was begun at an early stage of his
conversion. As a student in Paris he was the leader of a group of young men,
among them FRANCIS XAVIER, who formed the nucleus of what was to become
the Society of Jesus. This Order, founded by Ignatius, received papal sanction
and in time became identified with the Counter-Reformation movement and the
restoration of the influence of the Catholic Church. Centred on Rome, its
objectives were primarily missionary, to pagan countries overseas, the education
of the young and the combating of Protestantism. Ignatius is generally portrayed
as a man of middle years, balding, square-browed, and with a short, dark
beard. He wears the black habit of the Order or, when before the altar, a
chasuble. As a standing figure he may have for attribute a BOOK inscribed, 'Ad
majorem Dei gloriam,' - 'To the greater glory of God', the opening words of
the Rule; IHS, the monogram of the Order (cf BERNARDINO), perhaps on a tablet
held by angels or in a halo; a heart crowned with thorns, the Sacred Heart, the
emblem of the Jesuits. The most commonly represented scene from his life,
found widely in Jesuit churches, shows him at prayer in a wayside chapel where
he had halted on the journey to Rome. Before him appears the figure of Christ
bearing the cross, with the words 'Ego vobis Romae propitius ero' - 'I will help
you on your way to Rome.' The companions of the saint may be seen waiting
outside the chapel. Ignatius relates that this vision inspired him to give the name
of Jesus to his society. He is seen wounded at Pampeluna, before him a vision of
St Peter; kneeling before Paul III, seeking papal confirmation for his Order;
blessing the kneeling Francis Xavier on the eve of the latter's missionary journey

Page 377

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