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Title!!Kowalski & Westen - 2011 - Psychology 6ed
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Table of Contents
                            Cover Page
Title Page
DEDICATION
Copyright Page
PREFACE
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
CONTENTS  IN  BRIEF
CONTENTS
ABOUT THE AUTHORS
CHAPTER 1 PSYCHOLOGY: THE STUDY OF MENTAL PROCESSES AND BEHAVIOR
	RESEARCH IN DEPTH: THE BLUE EYES HAVE IT!
	THE BOUNDARIES AND BORDERS OF PSYCHOLOGY
		The Boundary with Biology
		The Boundary with Culture
		From Philosophy to Psychology
	PERSPECTIVES IN PSYCHOLOGY
		The Psychodynamic Perspective
		The Behaviorist Perspective
		The Cognitive Perspective
		The Evolutionary Perspective
	PROFILES IN POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY: MENTAL HEALTH, HOPE, AND OPTIMISM
	COMMENTARY: MAKING SENSE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES
	THE BIG PICTURE QUESTIONS
CHAPTER 2 RESEARCH METHODS IN PSYCHOLOGY
	CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH
		Theoretical Framework
		FOCUS ON METHODOLOGY: GETTING RESEARCH IDEAS
		Standardized Procedures
		Generalizability from a Sample
		Objective Measurement
	PSYCHOLOGY AT WORK: THE MEANING BEHIND THE MESSAGE
	DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
		Case Study Methods
		Naturalistic Observation
		Survey Research
		FOCUS ON METHODOLOGY: WHAT TO DO WITH DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
	EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
		The Logic of Experimentation
		Steps in Conducting an Experiment
		Limitations of Experimental Research
		FOCUS ON METHODOLOGY: TESTING THE HYPOTHESIS—INFERENTIAL STATISTICS
	CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH
	RESEARCH IN DEPTH: THE SHOCKING RESULTS
	HOW TO EVALUATE A STUDY CRITICALLY
	ONE STEP FURTHER: ETHICAL QUESTIONS COME IN SHADES OF GRAY
CHAPTER 3 BIOLOGICAL BASES OF MENTAL LIFE AND BEHAVIOR
	NEURONS: BASIC UNITS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
		Anatomy of a Neuron
		Firing of a Neuron
		Transmission of Information between Cells
	THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
		The Somatic Nervous System
		The Autonomic Nervous System
	PSYCHOLOGY AT WORK: NEUROMARKETING
	THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
		The Spinal Cord
		The Hindbrain
		The Midbrain
		The Subcortical Forebrain
		The Cerebral Cortex
	RESEARCH IN DEPTH: THINKING WITH TWO MINDS?
	PROFILES IN POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY: HAPPINESS
	GENETICS AND EVOLUTION
		The Influence of Genetics on Psychological Functioning
		Behavioral Genetics
		Evolution
		Evolution of the Central Nervous System
	THE FUTURE: GENETIC ENGINEERING
CHAPTER 4 SENSATION AND PERCEPTION
	BASIC PRINCIPLES
	SENSING THE ENVIRONMENT
		Transduction
		Absolute Thresholds
		Difference Thresholds
		Sensory Adaptation
	PSYCHOLOGY AT WORK: PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY
	VISION
		The Nature of Light
		The Eye
		Neural Pathways
	PROFILES IN POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY: RESILIENCE
		Perceiving in Color
	HEARING
		The Nature of Sound
		The Ear
		Neural Pathways
	OTHER SENSES
		Smell
		Taste
		Skin Senses
		Proprioceptive Senses
	PERCEPTION
		Organizing Sensory Experience
		Interpreting Sensory Experience
	RESEARCH IN DEPTH: CHECKERBOARDS, CLIFFS, BABIES, AND GOATS
CHAPTER 5 LEARNING
	CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
		Pavlov’s Model
	RESEARCH IN DEPTH: CONDITIONED EMOTIONAL RESPONSES AND LITTLE ALBERT
		Stimulus Generalization and Discrimination
		Extinction
		Factors Affecting Classical Conditioning
		What Do Organisms Learn in Classical Conditioning?
	OPERANT CONDITIONING
		Reinforcement
		Punishment
		Extinction
		Operant Conditioning of Complex Behaviors
	ONE STEP FURTHER: WHY ARE REINFORCERS REINFORCING?
	COGNITIVE–SOCIAL THEORY
		Learning and Cognition
	PROFILES IN POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY: OUTLIERS
		Social Learning
CHAPTER 6 MEMORY
	MEMORY AND INFORMATION PROCESSING
		Mental Representations
		Information Processing: An Evolving Model
	WORKING MEMORY
		Processing Information in Working Memory: The Central Executive
		Visual and Verbal Storage
		The Relation between Working Memory and Long-Term Memory
	VARIETIES OF LONG-TERM MEMORY
		Declarative and Procedural Memory
		Explicit and Implicit Memory
		Everyday Memory
	ENCODING AND ORGANIZATION OF LONG-TERM MEMORY
		Encoding
		Mnemonic Devices
		Networks of Association
		Schemas
	REMEMBERING, MISREMEMBERING, AND FORGETTING
		How Long Is Long-Term Memory?
		How Accurate Is Long-Term Memory?
	PSYCHOLOGY AT WORK: EYEWITNESS TESTIMONY
	RESEARCH IN DEPTH: EYEWITNESS TESTIMONY
		Why Do People Forget?
	COMMENTARY: REPRESSED MEMORIES OF SEXUAL ABUSE
CHAPTER 7 THOUGHT AND LANGUAGE
	UNITS OF THOUGHT
		Manipulating Mental Representations
		Concepts and Categories
	REASONING, PROBLEM SOLVING, AND DECISION MAKING
		Reasoning
		Problem Solving
		Decision Making
	IMPLICIT AND EVERYDAY THINKING
		How Rational Are We?
		Implicit Cognition
		Emotion, Motivation, and Decision Making
	RESEARCH IN DEPTH: COUNTERFACTUALS AND “IF ONLY . . .” THINKING
		Connectionism
	LANGUAGE
		Language and Thought
		Transforming Sounds and Symbols into Meaning
		The Use of Language in Everyday Life
		PSYCHOLOGY AT WORK: TINY TALKERS
		ONE STEP FURTHER: IS LANGUAGE DISTINCTLY HUMAN?
CHAPTER 8 INTELLIGENCE
	DEFINING INTELLIGENCE
		Intelligence Is Multifaceted, Functional, and Culturally Defined
	RESEARCH IN DEPTH: INTELLIGENCE IN CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE
	INTELLIGENCE TESTING
		Binet’s Scale
		Intelligence Testing Crosses the Atlantic
	ONE STEP FURTHER: THE EXTREMES OF INTELLIGENCE
	PROFILES IN POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY: WISDOM
		Validity and Reliability of IQ Tests
	APPROACHES TO INTELLIGENCE
		The Psychometric Approach
		The Information-Processing Approach
		A Theory of Multiple Intelligences
	HEREDITY AND INTELLIGENCE
		Individual Differences in IQ
		Group Differences: Race and Intelligence
	COMMENTARY: THE SCIENCE AND POLITICS OF INTELLIGENCE
CHAPTER 9 CONSCIOUSNESS
	THE NATURE OF CONSCIOUSNESS
		Functions of Consciousness
		Consciousness and Attention
	RESEARCH IN DEPTH: MINDLESSNESS
	PERSPECTIVES ON CONSCIOUSNESS
		The Psychodynamic Unconscious
		The Cognitive Unconscious
	PROFILES IN POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY: FLOW
	SLEEP AND DREAMING
		The Nature and Evolution of Sleep
		Stages of Sleep
		Three Views of Dreaming
	ALTERED STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS
		Meditation
		Hypnosis
	ONE STEP FURTHER: IS HYPNOSIS REAL?
		Drug-Induced States of Consciousness
CHAPTER 10 MOTIVATION AND EMOTION
	PERSPECTIVES ON MOTIVATION
		Psychodynamic Perspective
		Behaviorist Perspective
	PSYCHOLOGY AT WORK: SPORTS PSYCHOLOGY
		Cognitive Perspective
	PROFILES IN POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY: SELF-EFFICACY
		Evolutionary Perspective
		Applying the Perspectives on Motivation
	EATING
		Homeostasis
		What Turns Hunger On?
		What Turns Hunger Off?
		Obesity
	SEXUAL MOTIVATION
		The Sexual Response Cycle
		Sexual Orientation
	PSYCHOSOCIAL MOTIVES
		Needs for Relatedness
		Achievement and Other Agency Motives
	THE NATURE AND CAUSES OF HUMAN MOTIVES
	EMOTION
		Physiological Components
		Subjective Experience
	RESEARCH IN DEPTH: WHAT A LOAD OFF! HEALTH EFFECTS OF EMOTIONAL DISCLOSURE
		Emotional Expression
		A Taxonomy of Emotions
		Emotion Regulation
		Perspectives on Emotion
CHAPTER 11 HEALTH, STRESS, AND COPING
	HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY
		History of Health Psychology
		Theories of Health Behavior
		Health-Compromising Behaviors
	ONE STEP FURTHER: SELF-PRESENTATION AND HEALTH
	PSYCHOLOGY AT WORK: TEEN TEXTING WHILE DRIVING
		Barriers to Health Promotion
	STRESS
		Stress as a Psychobiological Process
		Stress as a Transactional Process
		Sources of Stress
		Stress and Health
	RESEARCH IN DEPTH: CHOICE AND RESPONSIBILITY TO HELP YOU AGE
	COPING
		Coping Mechanisms
		Social Support
	THE FUTURE OF HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY
CHAPTER 12 PERSONALITY
	PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORIES
		Freud’s Models
		Object Relations Theories
	ONE STEP FURTHER: ASSESSING UNCONSCIOUS PATTERNS
		Contributions and Limitations of Psychodynamic Theories
	COGNITIVE–SOCIAL THEORIES
		Encoding and Personal Relevance
		Expectancies and Competences
		Self-Regulation
		Contributions and Limitations of Cognitive–Social Theories
	TRAIT THEORIES
		Eysenck’s Theory
	PROFILES IN POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY: COMPASSION AND SELF-COMPASSION
		The Five-Factor Model
	RESEARCH IN DEPTH: HE’S GOT THE PERSONALITY OF A TURNIP!
		Is Personality Consistent?
		Contributions and Limitations of Trait Theories
	HUMANISTIC THEORIES
		Rogers’s Person-Centered Approach
		Existential Approaches to Personality
		Contributions and Limitations of Humanistic Theories
	GENETICS AND PERSONALITY
	PERSONALITY AND CULTURE
		Linking Personality and Culture
CHAPTER 13 LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT
	ISSUES IN DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY
		Nature and Nurture
		The Importance of Early Experience
		Stages or Continuous Change?
	SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT AND ATTACHMENT
		Attachment in Infancy
	RESEARCH IN DEPTH: MOTHERLY LOVE
		Individual Differences in Attachment Patterns
		Implications of Attachment for Later Development
	SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT ACROSS THE LIFE SPAN
		Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development
		Development from Adolescence through Old Age
	PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT AND ITS PSYCHOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES
		Prenatal Development
	PSYCHOLOGY AT WORK: PROGERIA
		Infancy
		Childhood and Adolescence
		Adulthood and Aging
	COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN INFANCY, CHILDHOOD, AND ADOLESCENCE
		Perceptual and Cognitive Development in Infancy
		Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
		Information-Processing Approach to Cognitive Development
		Integrative Theories of Cognitive Development
	COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT AND CHANGE IN ADULTHOOD
		Cognitive Changes Associated with Aging
		Aging and “Senility”
	LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
		A Critical Period for Language Development?
		What Infants Know about Language
		From Babbling to Bantering
	MORAL DEVELOPMENT
		The Role of Cognition
		The Role of Emotion
	COMMENTARY: MAKING SENSE OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT
		The Nature of Development
CHAPTER 14 PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS
	THE CULTURAL CONTEXT OF PSYCHOPATHOLOGY
		Culture and Psychopathology
		Is Mental Illness Nothing but a Cultural Construction?
	RESEARCH IN DEPTH: A CASE OF MISDIAGNOSIS?
	CONTEMPORARY APPROACHES TO PSYCHOPATHOLOGY
		Psychodynamic Perspective
		Cognitive–Behavioral Perspective
		Biological Approach
		Systems Approach
		Evolutionary Perspective
	DESCRIPTIVE DIAGNOSIS: DSM-IV AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGICAL SYNDROMES
		DSM-IV
		Disorders Usually First Diagnosed in Infancy, Childhood, or Adolescence
		Substance-Related Disorders
		Schizophrenia
		Mood Disorders
	PROFILES IN POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY: COURAGE
		Anxiety Disorders
		Eating Disorders
		Dissociative Disorders
		Personality Disorders
	ONE STEP FURTHER: ARE MENTAL DISORDERS REALLY DISTINCT?
CHAPTER 15 TREATMENT OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS
	PSYCHODYNAMIC THERAPIES
		Therapeutic Techniques
		Varieties of Psychodynamic Therapy
	COGNITIVE–BEHAVIORAL THERAPIES
		Basic Principles
		Classical Conditioning Techniques
		Operant Conditioning Techniques
		Modeling and Skills Training
		Cognitive Therapy
	PSYCHOLOGY AT WORK: PET THERAPY
	HUMANISTIC , GROUP, AND FAMILY THERAPIES
		Humanistic Therapies
		Group Therapies
		Family Therapies
	PROFILES IN POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY: THERAPY’S CONTRIBUTION TO MEANING MAKING AND PURPOSEFUL LIVING
	ONE STEP FURTHER: PSYCHOTHERAPY INTEGRATION
	BIOLOGICAL TREATMENTS
		Antipsychotic Medications
		Antidepressant and Mood-Stabilizing Medications
		Antianxiety Medications
		Electroconvulsive Therapy and Psychosurgery
	EVALUATING PSYCHOLOGICAL TREATMENTS
		Pharmacotherapy
		Psychotherapy
	RESEARCH IN DEPTH: SOME THERAPY IS BETTER THAN NO THERAPY
CHAPTER 16 SOCIAL COGNITION
	SOCIAL COGNITION
		Perceiving Other People
		Stereotypes and Prejudice
	PSYCHOLOGY AT WORK: RAPID COGNITION
	RESEARCH IN DEPTH: EAGLES, RATTLERS, AND THE ROBBER’S CAVE
		Attribution
	PROFILES IN POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY: FORGIVENESS
		Biases in Social Information Processing
		Applications
	ATTITUDES
		The Nature of Attitudes
		Attitudes and Behavior
		Persuasion
		Cognitive Dissonance
	THE SELF
		Self-Esteem
		Self-Consistency
		Self-Presentation
CHAPTER 17 INTERPERSONAL PROCESSES
	PROFILES IN POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY: GRATITUDE
	RELATIONSHIPS
		Factors Leading to Interpersonal Attraction
		Love
		The Dark Side of Relationships
	PSYCHOLOGY AT WORK: MAKING RELATIONSHIPS WORK
	ALTRUISM
		Theories of Altruism
		Bystander Intervention
	AGGRESSION
		Violence and Culture
		Violence and Gender
		The Roots of Violence
	SOCIAL INFLUENCE
		Obedience
		Conformity
		Group Processes
	RESEARCH IN DEPTH: ZIMBARDO’S PRISON STUDY
		Everyday Social Influence
GLOSSARY
ANSWERS
REFERENCES
PHOTO CREDITS
TEXT AND ILLUSTRATION CREDITS
NAME INDEX
SUBJECT INDEX
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 431

HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY 407

TABLE 11 .1

SEXUALLY TrANSMITTED INFECTIONS

Disease New Cases Annually Primary Symptoms

Genital herpes 500,000 Blisters in the genital region

Chlamydia 2.8 million Generally asymptomatic

Gonorrhea 350,000 Discharge from the vagina or penis and
painful urination

Genital warts 1 million Bumps in the vaginal or penile area

Syphilis 11,000 Begins as a sore but left unchecked can
affect the central nervous system and the
heart

HIV/AIDS > 56,000 Originally appears as something
resembling a bad case of the flu:
progresses as the virus attacks the
immune system, leaving the person
vulnerable to opportunistic infections

Because of the high mortality rate associated with it, we will focus on HIV/AIDS:
Particularly in African nations, the AIDS epidemic is dramatically lowering life expec-
tancy. In some countries, life expectancy is expected to drop by half because of the
number of people dying from AIDS (Carey & Vanable, 2003).

When AIDS was first detected in 1980, fewer than 100 Americans had died from the disease.
Less than 20 years later, more than 580,000 Americans had been diagnosed with AIDS, more
than 360,000 had died from it, and AIDS had become the second leading killer of Americans
between 22 and 45 years of age, second only to accidents.… According to the World Health
Organization (WHO), by the very beginning of 2001 the number of people living with HIV had
grown to 26.1 million, 10 percent more than just 1 year earlier.

(Straub, 2002, p. 467)

Close to 70 percent of new cases of HIV infection are among men. More than
half of new cases involve African Americans (54 percent), followed by Caucasians (26
percent), Hispanics (19 percent), and others (1 percent) [Centers for Disease Control
(CDC), 2003b]. A recent report by the CDC highlighted the fact that, although African
Americans represent a disproportionate share of new cases of HIV infection, race itself
is not a risk factor. Rather, compared to other racial and ethnic groups, African Ameri-
cans are disproportionately exposed to other factors that put them at heightened risk
for infection with HIV, including poverty, risky partners, substance abuse, and the
prevalence of other STIs (CDC, 2003b).

HIV is transmitted primarily through sexual behavior or the sharing of intrave-
nous drug needles, with heterosexual intercourse presently considered to be the main
mode of transmission (Carey & Vanable, 2003). The use of condoms is considered an
effective method of preventing transmission of the virus that causes AIDS. However,
only 20 percent of sexually active individuals reported using a condom the last time
they had intercourse. Among those most likely to use condoms were those at greatest
risk of being infected with HIV. However, only 36 percent of these people used con-
doms regularly (Anderson, 2003).

Once infected, the disease follows a very predictable course in terms of stages, if
not time. A few weeks after being infected, a person will experience symptoms that
resemble mononucleosis—fever, fatigue, and sore throat. Following this, infected in-
dividuals enter an asymptomatic state during which they are symptom–free but very
capable of infecting others. A number of years can pass before the infected individual
develops AIDS. By this time, the person’s immune system is so compromised that he
or she is open to opportunistic diseases. In fact, people do not die from AIDS itself, but
rather from cancers and infections to which they are now vulnerable. Furthermore,

HAVE YOU HEArD?

Smoking, alcohol, and drugs undoubtedly
have the potential to be addictive and, as
such, pose significant health threats. In recent
years, a new addiction has appeared that
also poses health threats to the addict and
to those around the addict: Internet addic-
tion. People who report being addicted to the
Internet also report personal and relational
problems as well as academic and job-related
problems (Young, 1996). For example, a young
couple, Michael and Iana Straw, were arrested
and charged with child neglect because their
addiction to the Internet led them to ignore
their children, leaving them starving and in
need of medical attention.

kowa_c11_383-434hr.indd 407 10/5/10 1:34 PM

Page 432

408 CHAPTEr 11 HEALTH, STrESS, AND COPING

infection with HIV places people at increased risk for contracting other STIs that, in
conjunction with HIV, may result in an even shorter life expectancy.

Health psychologists have played an increasingly active role as the AIDS epi-
demic continues to spread. Of course, their first plan of action is to prevent people
from engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors. In some cases, this involves targeting
those who are already engaging in such behaviors and working to get them to stop. In
other instances, the health psychologist’s goal is to reach young people who are not
yet sexually active to prevent them from engaging in risky sexual behaviors to begin
with. Their efforts on both of these levels involve working at both the individual and
the community levels. Individuals are offered instruction on ways in which they can
protect themselves, for example, through the consistent use of condoms. They may
be given a personal risk assessment to make them aware of behaviors that are placing
them at risk (Carey & Vanable, 2003). Communities, including schools, are encour-
aged to implement programs and informational campaigns designed to change social
norms regarding sexual behavior. One community-based behavioral skills program
created by Kelly (1995), a leading researcher in the area of AIDS prevention, has met
with considerable success. The program involves providing participants with a per-
sonalized risk assessment—strategies for reducing their risk, including use of con-
doms, reduced alcohol consumption before a sexual encounter, assertiveness training,
and the development of social support (Carey & Vanable, 2003). Another intervention
involved a teacher-delivered educational program with high school students in New
York. Students in the intervention group received formalized instruction on AIDS
prevention that included educating them about AIDS, assessing their attitudes toward
AIDS and their likelihood of getting it, and teaching them the skills needed to prevent
HIV infection (Walter & Vaughan, 1993). Students in the comparison group received
no formalized instruction. Three months after the termination of the curriculum, stu-
dents in the intervention group were more likely than those in the comparison group
to have changed their sexual behaviors, including abstinence, regular use of condoms,
and avoiding high-risk partners.

I N T E r I M S U M M A r Y

In spite of knowledge of the negative health consequences that might befall them, people con-
tinue to engage in a number of health-compromising behaviors, including obesity, smoking,
alcohol abuse, and high-risk sexual behaviors. Obesity is typically measured in terms of body
mass index (BMI). People with a BMI in excess of 30 percent are said to be obese. The preva-
lence of obesity is even more surprising when examined within the context of the set point,
the ideal body weight for each individual. However, genetic, social, and psychological factors
join together to influence someone’s ability to regulate his or her behavior around the set point.
Although genetic influences are strong, the degree to which they manifest themselves is deter-
mined in part by the environment, an idea germane to the susceptible gene hypothesis.

As with obesity, the onset, course, and termination of smoking behavior is also
determined by biological, social, and psychological variables. Smoking, along with other
health-compromising behaviors, may also be influenced by self-presentation, or people’s
attempt to control the images that other people form of them.

The primary distinction between alcoholics and problem drinkers is the physiologi-
cal addiction to alcohol that alcoholics have. Some alcoholics and problem drinkers learn to
control their problem through spontaneous remission. Most, however, require some kind
of formal treatment, in some cases even inpatient rehabilitation. The first step in inpatient
therapy is detoxification. Aversion therapy is a method for treating alcoholism that may
be used on an inpatient or an outpatient basis.

Many individuals also place themselves at risk for acquiring sexually transmitted infec-
tions. Although more than 20 STIs have been identified, the most publicized is HIV/AIDS,
which, on an international level, has reached epidemic proportions. Health psychologists
have played an active role in encouraging people to alter their high-risk behaviors or to
avoid engaging in risky behavior to begin with.

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