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TitleLibro de Latin
TagsGrammatical Gender Grammatical Number Rules Grammatical Tense Syllable
File Size3.3 MB
Total Pages317
Table of Contents
                            CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
LATIN SOURCES
Pronunciation and stress
Present tense: conjugations I, II, IV
Present tense: conjugation III
1st declension
Review of units 1–4
2nd declension
1st and 2nd declension adjectives
Prepositions
Uses of the ablative I
Imperfect tense
Future tense
Review of units 5–10
Irregular verbs I:
and
Uses of the genitive
Perfect active
Pluperfect and future perfect active
3rd declension
stems
3rd declension adjectives
Review of units 11–17
Uses of the dative
Passive voice
Passive of the perfect system
Demonstratives I
Demonstratives II
Review of units 18–22
Irregular verbs II
Pronominal adjectives
Relative clauses
Direct questions
Personal pronouns
Imperative mood
Review of units 23–28
Vocative and locative
Uses of the accusative
Indefi nite pronouns
Indefi nite adjectives
Participles
Ablative absolute
Review of units 29–34
Verbs that take the dative
4th and 5th declensions
Comparatives
Superlatives
Adverbs
Uses of the ablative II
Review of units 35–40
DICTIONARIES
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 2

Intensive Basic Latin: A Grammar and Workbook comprises a dynamic
reference grammar and related exercises in a single volume. The book
presents forty individual grammar points, covering the core material which
students would expect to encounter in their fi rst year of learning Latin.
Grammar points are followed by contextualized examples and exercises
which allow students to reinforce and consolidate their learning.

There is a particular emphasis throughout on familiarizing students with real,
unadulterated Latin and the task of teasing information from the Latin via
translations. To this end, there are matching exercises with unedited Latin
excerpts and rough English translations in the chapters, encouraging students
to take a hands-on approach in their learning. In addition to this, a short
reading relating to the adventures of Hercules is presented at the end of almost
every chapter; these readings, which become progressively more complex, give
the course a strong sense of narrative cohesion and interest and provide students
with opportunities to develop their comprehension and translation skills.

Key features include:

• Clear, accessible format and jargon-free explanations of grammar
• Many useful language examples
• Abundant and varied exercises with full answer key
• Controlled usage of vocabulary throughout, allowing students to

concentrate on building up their grammatical knowledge
• Review sections at intervals throughout the text, providing exercises

specially designed to consolidate knowledge of language points covered
• Useful English–Latin and Latin–English dictionaries at the back of the book.

Written by an experienced instructor, Intensive Basic Latin: A Grammar and
Workbook is an ideal resource for beginning students of Latin. It can be used
as a textbook, grammar reference and practice resource and is suitable both
for class use and independent study.

Jean-François R. Mondon is Assistant Professor of Foreign Languages at
Minot State University, USA.

INTENSIVE BASIC LATIN

Page 158

143

25
Relative
clauses

Vir, cuius māter rēgīna est, The man, whose mother is the queen,
in hāc īnsulā habitat. lives on this island.

Again the antecedent is vir; therefore, again a masculine singular relative pro-
noun is needed. With respect to case, however, the relative pronoun has the role
of a genitive in the relative clause; thus masculine, singular, genitive = cuius.

Advanced topic

Relative pronouns are frequently used at the start of sentences in Latin. In such
cases the antecedent is in the previous sentence. English uses a pronoun or
demonstrative in such situations.

Mīlitēs in oppidum advēnērunt. Quōs postquam vīdimus, laetī erāmus.
The soldiers arrived in the town. After we saw them, we were happy.

Exercise 1

Determine the gender, number, and case of each of the English relative pronouns
below. Then translate the relative pronoun into Latin. The Latin translation of
certain antecedents is provided where the gender is unclear.

1 I saw the man whose dog chased the cat.
2 My brother, who was terrifi ed, ran up a tree.
3 The kings of the island, whom we deposed, were living in a raft now.
4 It snows a lot in winter, which is a very cold month.

[hiems, hiemis (f.) winter]
5 Memorize the names which are on the tablet.

[nōmen, nōminis (nt) name]
6 The farmer’s daughter, whom I bought a present for, is very beautiful.
7 The love which one has for Rome is unbreakable.

[amor, amōris (m.) love]
8 The love with which I am possessed feels wonderful.

[amor, amōris (m.) love]
9 The laws which the senators wrote are thorough. [lēx, lēgis (f.) law]
10 The laws by which the state is run are thorough. [lēx, lēgis (f.) law]
11 The war, which lasted fi ve years, was costly. [bellum, -ī war]
12 Her sons, whose fi elds are green, are excellent farmers.
13 The gods, whom we offer sacrifi ces to, protect us.
14 The winds, by which the walls were knocked down, were dangerous.

[ventus, -ī wind]
15 The names whose letters are unclear are those of gods.

[nōmen, nōminis (nt.) name]

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25
Relative
clauses

144

Exercise 2

Translate the following.

1 Fīlius, cuius pater rēx fuit, agrōs magnōs videt.
2 Servī dominum suum saxīs interfēcērunt, quae in agrīs invēnērant.
3 Poēta, quem omnēs laudant, dīcit istem hominem malum esse.
4 Vulnera, quibus mīlitēs interfectī erant, gravia erant.
5 Cōnsulēs, quibus potestās est, lēgēs populīs scrībunt.
6 Tempestās fortis, quam agricolae vīdērunt, nautās terrēbat.
7 Cūr sīdera, quae in caelō sedent, fulgent?
8 Carcer tenebrārum, in quem est iactus inimīcus noster, tacet.
9 Līberī, quōrum pater vēla dederat, sōlī fuērunt.
10 Pugnam, quam animālia per tōtam silvam excitat, barbarī portant.

Exercise 3

Convert all nouns in Exercise 2 to the opposite number. If the noun is singular,
make it plural; if plural, make it singular. Be aware of necessary changes to
verbs and relative pronouns and of pluralia tantum nouns – nouns which are
always plural!

Exercise 4

Translate the following.

1 The daughter of the poet who had found the dog sings well.
2 The storm, which will have arrived, will destroy the towns, which were built

on the coasts.
3 Women whose children praise the gods, are happy.
4 You (sg.) ought to give money to the author, whose books were written for

everyone.
5 We had sought aid from the king, who did not break our happy spirits and

dreams.

Exercise 5

Each of the following unedited Latin passages contains a relative clause. Match
each passage with the English translation which follows. To assist you, try to
think of English derivatives which stem from some of the Latin words.

Page 316

301

Dictionariesship nāvis, nāvis (f.)
short brevis, breve
similar similis, simile [+ dat.]
sing canō, -ere, cecinī, cantus
sister soror, sorōris (f.)
sky caelum, -ī
sleep [noun] somnus, -ī; [verb] dormiō,

-īre, dormīvī, dormītus
slow lentus, -a, -um
small parvus, -a, -um
smell odor, odōris (m.)
soldier mīles, mīlitis (m.)
some alius, alia, aliud
some . . . other alius . . . alius
someone aliquis, aliquid
son fīlius, -ī
song carmen, carminis (nt.)
soothsayer vātēs, vātis (m./f.)
soul anima, -ae
spirit animus, -ī
stand stō, stāre, stetī, status
star stēlla, -ae
state cīvitās, cīvitātis (f.)
storm tempestās, tempestātis (f.)
story fābula, -ae
stream amnis, amnis (m.)
street via, -ae
strike pellō, -ere, pupulī, pulsus
strong fortis, forte; be strong valeō,

-ēre, valuī
sun sōl, sōlis (m.)
sweet dulcis, dulce
swift celer, celeris, celere
sword gladius, -ī
take capiō, -ere, cēpī, captus
teach doceō, -ēre, docuī, doctus
teacher magister, magistrī
tear lacrima, -ae
temple templum, -ī
than quam
that, those ille, illa, illud
their own suus, -a, -um
there ibi
thing rēs, -eī
think putō (1)
this, these hic, haec, hoc
through per [+ acc.]
throw iaciō, -ere, iēcī, iactus
tired dēfessus, -a, -um
to ad [+ acc.]
today hodiē

tomorrow crās
tooth dēns, dentis (m.)
touch tangō, -ere, tetigī, tāctus
town oppidum, -ī
tree arbor, arboris (f.)
trust fīdō, -ere, fīsus sum [+ dat.]
turn vertō, -ere, vertī, versus
under sub [+ acc. ~ abl.]
unfriendly inimīcus, -a, -um
unhappy īnfēlīx, īnfēlicis
unknown ignōtus, -a, -um
victory victōria, -ae
wage gerō, -ere, gessī, gestus
wall mūrus, -ī; moenia, -ium (nt. pl.)
want volō, velle, voluī;
not want nōlō, nōlle, nōluī
war bellum, -ī
warn moneō, -ēre, monuī, monitus
water aqua, -ae
wave unda, -ae
weapons arma, -ōrum
weep fl eō, -ēre, fl ēvī, fl ētus
well bene
whichever quīcumque, quaecumque,

quidcumque
whoever, whatever quīcumque,

quaecumque, quidcumque
when quandō
where ubi; to where quō
which of two uter, utra, utrum
white albus, -a, -um
who quis
whole tōtus, -a, -um
why cūr; quam ob rem
wicked improbus, -a, -um
wide lātus, -a, -um
wild ferus, -a, -um
wind ventus, -ī
wine vīnum, -ī
wise sapiēns, sapientis
with cum [+ abl.]
wolf lupus, -ī
woman fēmina, -ae
word verbum, -ī
world mundus, -ī; orbis (m.) terrārum
worthy dīgnus, -a, -um
wretched miser, misera, miserum
write scrībō, -ere, scrīpsī, scrīptus
young iuvenis, iuvenis
young man adulēscēns, adulēscentis
your vester, vestra, vestrum

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