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TitleLive Fast, Die Young: Anticipated Early Death and Adolescent Violence and Gang Involvement
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Document Text Contents
Page 1

The author(s) shown below used Federal funding provided by the U.S.
Department of Justice to prepare the following resource:

Document Title: Live Fast, Die Young: Anticipated Early

Death and Adolescent Violence and Gang

Involvement

Author(s): Arna L. Carlock

Document Number: 250425

Date Received: December 2016

Award Number: 2014-IJ-CX-0014

This resource has not been published by the U.S. Department of
Justice. This resource is being made publically available through the
Office of Justice Programs’ National Criminal Justice Reference
Service.

Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and
do not necessarily reflect the official position or policies of the U.S.
Department of Justice.

Page 2

Live Fast, Die Young: ­


Anticipated Early Death and ­


Adolescent Violence and Gang Involvement ­


by

Arna L. Carlock

A Dissertation ­


Submitted to the University at Albany, State University of New York ­


in Partial Fulfillment of ­


the Requirements for the Degree of ­


Doctor of Philosophy ­


School of Criminal Justice ­


2016 ­


This resource was prepared by the author(s) using Federal funds provided by the U.S.
Department of Justice. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not

necessarily reflect the official position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice

Page 92

Table 4.6. RYDS AED Measurement Models by Sex (Standardized Loadings)


8
0

­


Male 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

b (SE) b (SE) b (SE) b (SE) b (SE) b (SE) b (SE)

Depression .62 (.04) .64 (.03) .59 (.04) .56 (.04) .55 (.04) .56 (.04) .61 (.03)

Low self-esteem .92 (.04) .90 (.03) .87 (.03) .87 (.04) .88 (.04) .88 (.03) .81 (.03)

Low attachment to parents .53 (.04) .57 (.04) .59 (.04) .57 (.04) .54 (.04) .57 (.04) .55 (.04)

Low school connection .62 (.04) .63 (.04) .69 (.03) .63 (.04) .68 (.04) .69 (.04) .71 (.04)

Parent unemployed --- --- .31 (.03) --- --- .31 (.03) --- --- --- --- .34 (.03)

χ2 775* 806* 855* 858* 810* 818* 734*

TLI .92 .93 .93 .93 .94 .93 .94

RMSEA .07 .08 .08 .08 .09 .09 .08

Female 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

b (SE) b (SE) b (SE) b (SE) b (SE) b (SE) b (SE)

Depression .65 (.05) .61 (.05) .69 (.06) .78 (.05) .55 (.06) .56 (.05) .57 (.06)

Low self-esteem .78 (.06) .85 (.06) .73 (.05) .72 (.05) .89 (.07) .76 (.06) .85 (.06)

Low attachment to parents .64 (.06) .53 (.06) .53 (.06) .59 (.06) .42 (.07) .58 (.07) .46 (.06)

Low school connection .44 (.08) .71 (.05) .52 (.06) .54 (.06) .57 (.06) .64 (.05) .64 (.06)

Parent unemployed --- --- .31 (.05) .31 (.05) .44 (.05) .35 (.05) .33 (.04) --- ---

χ2 261* 305* 313* 277* 278* 310* 320*

TLI .90 .91 .89 .92 .91 .90 .92

RMSEA .08 .09 .10 .10 .10 .11 .10

SE = standard error; TLI = Tucker-Lewis Index; RMSEA = root mean square error approximation

*p ≤ .05

This resource was prepared by the author(s) using Federal funds provided by the U.S.
Department of Justice. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not

necessarily reflect the official position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice

Page 93

Table 4.7. Correlations of RYDS AED Indirect Measures with Sexual Behaviors


AED AED AED AED AED AED AED

2 3 4 5 6 7 8

AED 3 .74

AED 4 .68 .74

AED 5 .59 .65 .73

AED 6 .54 .59 .69 .71

AED 7 .55 .59 .67 .68 .76

AED 8 .46 .54 .60 .62 .67 .72

Sexual behavior

Number of sexual partners 6 .10 .05 .07 .04 .03 .00 .03

Number of sexual partners 7 .11 .09 .10 .10 .06 .07 .03

Number of sexual partners 8 .06 .02 .03 .06 .03 .05 .03

Number of sexual partners 9 .11 .05 .07 .07 .06 .08 .05

Pregnancy 5 .14 .11 .21 .14 .15 .12 .15

Pregnancy 6 .17 .17 .24 .17 .20 .18 .20

Pregnancy 7 .19 .20 .26 .17 .18 .18 .16

Pregnancy 8 .18 .17 .22 .15 .15 .17 .12

Pregnancy 9 .16 .13 .20 .10 .11 .13 .11

81 ­

This resource was prepared by the author(s) using Federal funds provided by the U.S.

Department of Justice. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not
necessarily reflect the official position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice

Page 183

1
7
1


N Mean SD Range

…Appendix B continued…

Dependent Variables c

Violence Prevalence

[Subject reports engaging in at least one of six violent behaviors – see Appendix A] 804 0.28 0.45 0 - 1

Violence Variety

[Count of the types of violent acts a subject reported committing – see Appendix A] 804 0.42 0.80 0 - 5

Gang Membership

Since we interviewed you last time, were you a member of a street gang or posse? 804 0.12 0.32 0 - 1

Gang Duration

[Number of waves a subject reports gang membership, waves 2-9] 804 0.62 1.25 0 - 8

Gang Stability

[Nongang youth, waves 2-9] 573 (71%)

[Short-term: one wave of gang membership only, waves 2-9] 101 (13%)

[Intermittent: multiple waves of gang membership with a break in between, waves 2-9] 82 (10%)

[Long-term: one period of consecutive waves of membership, waves 2-9] 48 (6%)
a Variables measured at wave 2 unless noted otherwise.
b Low self-control variables are measured at wave 10.
c Dependent variables are measured at wave 3 except for gang duration and stability, which are construct variables.

(R) = reversed item

Note: For dichotomous variables, the mean presents the percentage of respondents coded 1 on that variable. For example, the mean of

“gang membership” is 0.14, indicating that 14% of the respondents reported gang membership at wave 2.



This resource was prepared by the author(s) using Federal funds provided by the U.S.
Department of Justice. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not

necessarily reflect the official position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice

Page 184

172

Appendix C

Comparisons of RYDS Male and Female SEM Coefficients (z scores)

t wave W2 W3 W4 W5 W6 W7 W8

Violence Prevalence

Path A 0.21 -0.12 0.00 0.13 0.70 -0.35 -0.25

Path B -1.26 -0.46 0.08 -0.61 -0.79 0.92 0.60

Path C -2.04 -0.46 -1.30 0.00 1.77 -2.30 -1.03

Indirect A-B -0.86 -0.40 0.00 0.51 -0.51 0.86 0.60

AED total effect -2.76 -0.69 -1.46 0.24 1.73 -2.39 -0.93

Violence Incidence

Path A 0.21 -0.12 0.00 0.13 0.58 -0.35 -0.25

Path B -2.23 -0.55 -2.11 1.80 -2.12 0.00 2.68
Path C -0.94 0.96 0.00 -1.94 2.23 -2.12 -0.74

Indirect A-B -1.41 -0.71 -1.39 1.77 -1.34 -0.32 2.24
AED total effect -1.56 0.78 -0.75 -1.34 1.66 -2.97 -0.23

Violence Variety

Path A 0.21 -0.12 0.00 0.13 0.58 -0.35 -0.25

Path B -1.74 -0.83 -0.09 0.92 -1.07 0.49 0.38

Path C -1.60 0.17 -1.28 -0.57 2.06 -1.99 -0.69

Indirect A-B -1.66 -0.80 0.00 1.00 -0.60 0.40 0.45

AED total effect -2.00 -0.18 -1.48 -0.18 1.97 -2.22 -0.66

Gang Membership

Path A 0.21 -0.12

Path B -1.58 -2.28

Path C 0.49 3.37

Indirect A-B -1.20 -1.64

AED total effect 0.08 2.95



Violence Prevalence Cross-Lagged

AEDt í AEDt+1 -1.66 1.96 -0.89 0.73 1.26 -0.28

AEDt í Violencet+1 -2.70 2.87 -1.63 1.34 1.36 -2.38

Violencet í AEDt+1 -0.83 0.00 -0.14 0.99 -1.94 0.83

Violencet í Violencet+1 0.87 -2.01 0.91 -0.45 0.00 0.63

Gang Membership Cross-Lagged

AEDt í AEDt+1 0.55 1.11

AEDt í Gangt+1 0.48 3.13

Gangt í AEDt+1 -0.30 0.32

Gangt í Gangt+1 -0.46 -0.37

Note: Bold type indicates z scores that are less than -1.96 or greater than 1.96, allowing for

rejection of the null hypothesis of no difference between the male-only coefficients and the

female-only coefficients.

This resource was prepared by the author(s) using Federal funds provided by the U.S.
Department of Justice. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not

necessarily reflect the official position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice

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