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TitleLouis Wirth - The Ghetto
TagsReligion And Belief Ancient Rome Jews Paul The Apostle Ghetto
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Document Text Contents
Page 153

THE JEWS IN AMERICA .:!:43

in this country. But on the religious side they found their
co-religionists still engulfed in the orthodox ritualism of the
Old World. Orthodox Judaism in America possessed a
strength which it has never possessed in Germany since the
beginning of the nineteenth century. As a result the Jewish
communities of America divided into two opposing camps:
the orthodox, to which belonged the older "American,"
English, and Polish Jews, and the Reformed, which had the
adherence not only of the newly arrived Germans but gradu-
ally gained support from the more rebellious sections of the
older groups.

The immigrants of this period found the older settlers
intrenched in the most advantageous positions in commerce
and in finance. A large proportion of the newcomers settled
in the important cities of the East: New York, Philadelphia,
Baltimore, and Charleston, and opened small business estab-
lishments. Others went West, as peddlers and small mer-
chants. Not infrequently a recently arrived Jewish immi-
grant, carrying his pack on his back, struck, in his peregrina-
tions, a village or small town that seemed to offer uppor-
tunities, and settled there. Several great fortunes have had
their humble beginnings in this fashion. -r:he Jewish peddler
was generally a welcome visitor at the isolated farmhouses.
The arrival of a Jew in town became a matter of interest
to the whole community. This was the case with Joseph
Jonas, a watchmaker by trade, who was the first Jew to
settle in Cincinnati. This was in the year r8IJ.

He was a curiosity at first, as many in that part of the country had
never seen a Jew before. Numbers of people came from the country
round about to see bini, and he related in his old age of an old Quaker-
ess who said to him: "Art thou a Jew? Thou art one of God's chosen
people. Wilt thou let me examine thee?" She turned him round and

Page 154

144 THE GHETTO

round, and at last exclaimed: "Well, thou art no different to other
people."•

When news of the discovery of gold in Califomf~ reached
them, in 1849, the Jews were not slow to move westward.
On the Day of Atonement of that same year, a minyan
(assembly of ten men for prayer) was held in a tent in San
Francisco. During this period it was not an uncommon
practice for an Eastern group of Jews to send an agent West
to explore the country and gather information on the pros-
pects of founding a Jewish settlement. This was the proce-
dure followed in the case of the first Jewish settlement of
Chicago.

The first occasion that arose indicating a nation-wide
solidarity among the Jews of the United States was during
the agitation and protests against the persecution of the
Jews of Turkey, in the so-called Damascus incident in 1840.2
Another occasion was the proposed treaty of the United
States with Switzerland. This treaty did not guarantee the
Jews equal treatment with other citizens of the United
States. The Jews protested vigorously, and brought pres-
sure to bear upon the United States Senate and the President
to prevent ratification. From 1850 to 1874, when the new
Swiss constitution was adopted, this question continued
to agitate the American Jews. Subsequent emergencies
which have mobilized American Jewry for collective action
have served to make it a memorable period.

The Jewish communities in the United States around
the middle of the nineteenth century were fairly autonomous
organizations. The heads of the religious institutions settled

1 Wiernik, op. cil., pp. 137-38.

• See Cyrus Adler, "Jews in American Diplomatic Correspondence,"
Publications of the American Jewish Historical Society, Vol. XV.

Page 306

INDEX 297

Jonas, Joseph, 143-44

Kabbala. See Cabalism
Kalisher, Hirsch, 104
Khazars, 67, S9
Kosher, 19, 22, 23, 107,_ 212-14, 237

Landownership, 12, 25, 32, 41, sS,
721 III, 131

Landsmannschajt, 142, 147, 168-69,
222-23, 254. 269

Lasalle, Ferdinand, 107
Lilienblum, Moses, 104
Lilienthal, Max, 146

Maimonides, S4
Marginal man, 36, 73, no
Marriage, 6S, So, 154
Ma"anos, 131-32
Marshallik, Sr
Marx, Karl, ro6-7
Maskilim, 149
Maxwell Street, 231-40
Mayflower, Jewish, 133
Mendelssohn, Moses, 99, roo, 103
Messianic movement, 92, 9S, 102
Migration, II, 13, 25, sr, S9, 124,140
Mobility, 13, 14, 25, 36, 51, 7S; and

personality, 251
Money-lending, 24, 25, 49, 7S
Mutual Aid societies, 13S, 14S, 157,

16<r61, 207
Mysticism, S7, 92, 97

Napoleon, II2
Nationalism, S4, 101, 103
Negro, 6, 20, 64, 67, uS; as successor

to Jew, 23o-31
Noah, M. M., 104
Nomadism, 76

Pale, 3, 4, 79, So, SS, 95, 147

Peddlers,7S,135,143,14S,rs4,I67-
68

Persecution, rs, 44. S7, 91, 131, 132,
144; effects of, 69, 71, S2-SS, 92,
97; and nationalism, 102, ros-6

Personality, Jewish, 73; a product of
ghetto, 71, 122, 252; types, 9, 37,
3S, 43, 79, So-Sr., 225-26, 24S

Pfefferkorn incident, 45
Philanthropy, 37, 54, 57, 6r, 79, So,

S1, 136, r4S, 149, 162, r66, 188,
192, 217, 274-7S

Philo, S4
Pinsker, Leon, 104
Poale Zion party, 107
Pogroms, SQ, 91, 93. ns-r6, 147.

1Q0"-91
Population: density, 43, sr, 12S,

146, 195; succession, 4, 146, 164,
191, 226-31; sifting, s, 20, 51, r8o

Press, 145, 14S, r62, 178-79
Provincialism, 36, 72, S2, 86, 92, 94,

101, 141, 168

Rabbi: position of, 54-56, 79, So,
Ss; salary of, 1S6; influence of,
S3, Ss, 144-45; Meir of Rothen-
burg, 4S, Ss

Rabbinism, 92, 100
Race: Jews as, 62-71; disappear-

ance of, 125; prejudice, 64, 69, S7
Racial: colonies, 2o; uniform, 64
Realestatenick, 225
Reform movement, 107-9, 142-43,

145-46,150,161-62, 165_
Religion, and race, 67, 6S, 72; and

occupation, 7S
Responsa, 48, Ss
Reuchlin, John, 45
Riesser, Gabriel, us
Romantic movement, 49
Rosenwald, Julius, 191
Rothschild: family, 4S, 49i Edmond

de, 104, Lionel de, us

Sabbatai Zevi, 92, 9S
Salvadore, Joseph, 104
Sanhedrin, II2

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THE GHETTO

Schlemiel, 79
Semites, 63, 66
Sephardim, S4, I3I-37, I42
Shadchan, So
Shamus, 55, 79
Shlakhla,go
Shachel, 55, 79
Shubert, B., ISS
Sicilians, ss
Sinai congregation, I6S-<i6, I74
Slum, 33, 35, 47, 93, I47, I4S, I¢"-

200

Smolensi:in, Perez, I04
Social distance, S, 9, I6, 27, 3S, so,

7S, uS, I48-49, I73, 223-24, 26S,
284

Social movements, S7, 92, 94, 97-I Io
Social type, Jew as, 7fr7I, 73, SI
Socialism, IOI, Io6-7, 14S, I49
Spinoza, S4, SS
Stranger: Jew as, I3-1S, 2rr22, :zs,

26, 7S, In; rOle of, 36, 54; status
of, 6fr6I

Stuyvesant, Peter, I33
Sweatshops, I4S, IS6
Symbiosis, u, 24, 2S:z
Synagogue,I9,23,36,37,S2,S6,S7,

I07, 147; in New York, 134, I48;
in America, 13S; in Chicago, IS8-
S9; and community, 52, 57, 6o,
I4rr41; as community center, 52,
54, S6, 123, 205-10; and temple,
x6s, 174; functions of, 52-55, 61;

in11.uence of, S:a-83, 86, u6; com-
plex, 28g

Talmud: learning, S:z, 97~. 103;
culture, 92; students, So; Torah,
!.47

Taxation, I7, 2I, 24, 33, 54, 56-59,
79. go

Theater, 225
Toleration, 4, 16, IS, :zo, 3I, 90, III,

n:z, 2S2-S3
TJ;ade, relations, I4, n, 24, 25, 7S,

229; routes, 5rr51
Travel, 34, 36, 86
T10jim, 22I-22

Universities, S2, S3, 84, 93, ns, n6
Usury, 7S, 99

Vocations, 15-17, :zo, 23, 24, 29, 36,
72, 75. 77-79. go, 93. 146, IS3.
.1S1-S2, 1S5-86, 240

VVealth,37,5~ 7S, 79
~eUanschauung,49, I42
VVise, Isaac, M., 146

Yeshiba, 6I, 91, 1o8; bochar, So, 249
Yiddish, Sg, Ioo, 102-3, 147, I48,

167, IS1j literature, 102j press,
I48, 18o

leutansky,I>avid,I67
Ziegler, 1., ISS
Zionism, 101-5, 149

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