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TitleMoving Average Price vs Standard Price
TagsInventory Prices Moving Average Valuation (Finance) Receipt
File Size142.2 KB
Total Pages9
Table of Contents
                            Moving Average Price Vs Standard Price
	sap material moving average price vs standard price
	Moving average price versus standard price for the valuation of raw materials
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

Moving Average Price Vs Standard
Price

SAP offers two methods of inventory valuation and product costing: standard cost and (weighted)

moving average. The method to be used is identified on the material master level, thus different

materials can use different methods within a plant. Although SAP does not restrict this choice,

moving average is typically used only on purchased materials.

The decision to use moving average for certain materials should reflect the approach used to analyze

contribution margins, and variances in manufacturing and purchasing. Use of moving average on

purchased materials may be appropriate where the item is an easily obtained commodity, with small

fluctuations in cost. In such situations, the impact on margins is minimized, reducing the need for

formal variance analysis.

From a practical point of view, some of the key differences and considerations in how this would be

reflected in the system are identified below.

1. SAP has officially recommended not using moving average for semi-finished and finished

materials. The key point behind this recommendation is that the moving average may become

distored due to the timing of cost postings and settlements, and the number of orders in progress for

the same material. See OSS note #81682 for more detail.

2. There is no variance calculation for materials carried at moving average. Although this saves

time during month-end, by definition this eliminates any analysis of price variances on raw materials

and consequently, on buyer performance.

3. If (sub) assemblies are also carried at moving average, it is extremely difficult to identify the

source of fluctuating valuation since many materials in the BOM may contribute to it. Again, there is

no variance calculation for analyzing manufacturing operations. Additionally, cost fluctuations will

seriously impact margin analysis for items sold or transferred.

4. In situations of rapid inventory turnover, use of moving average on (sub)assemblies may result in

variance postings due to inadequate stock coverage to absorb settlement adjustments. Attempting to

settle more often / automatically may not be feasible if not all costs have been posted.

5. Moving average can be set to zero and will not generate any warnings during transactions (i.e. no

FI postings). Standard cost also allows a zero standard cost (as of 3.0d), but generates at least a

warning.

6. Cost fluctuations at lower levels in the BOM will have a delayed impact on parent items, either in

terms of variance postings and/or adjustment of parent moving averages. For example, a lower level

material which is adjusted through its own settlement, may be used at various points in the life cycle

of higher-level orders; any cost under/overruns of the component would be reflected later on the

higher level orders.

Page 2

7. The moving average for a material may be changed directly via t/c MR21, unlike the more

formalized cost roll-up procedure used in standard costing. Access to this transaction should be

restricted.

8. Changing a material from standard cost to moving average will overwrite the existing moving

average with the then-current standard; a report extract should be generated before any update for

analysis and audit.

9. Any changes to config on the price control for a material type impacts newly created materials

only – they are default settings and do not affect already created materials.

10. In environments where some materials are carried at moving average and others at standard,

there is a subtle error possible. Even for materials being carried at moving average, the cost roll-up

will update the standard price field with the calculated value. Since the material itself will be

transacted at moving average, this would appear to be a statistical / memo entry only. However, the

‘as-delivered’ settings for valuation variant 001 (used for both cost roll-ups and goods receipt), are:

a. Planned price

b. Standard cost

c. Moving average cost

This means that in a cost roll-up, if the lower level item is being carried at moving average, has a

costing view, and has been included in a cost roll-up, it will also have a standard price recorded.

According to the standard valuation variant, this would mean the higher level material would see and

use the standard cost before the moving average. This could result in a built-in variance.

Main diferences between Moving Average and Standard Price is:
1. Standard price is same for one period (month) and automatic posting of good receipt does not influence to it
(you can change price 'manualy' - MR21 transaction, or by calculation in CO for finished and semifinished
products). Moving Average price change every good receipt, if price on purchase order is diferent from price in
material Master
2. Good receipt from vendor referencing on purchase order. If you have standard price, on stock account in FI
SAP posts per standard price in material master and diferences (values) between by price on PO and standard
price in material master always be posted on other costs or other revenues in FI. If you have moving average
price in material master, on stock account in FI SAP posts per price in purchase order and changes price in
material master, and there diferences not posts.
3. Posting diferences between price on invoice and on purchase order in Invoice verification. For standard
price diferences SAP always posts in FI on other costs or other revenues account. For moving average price, if
quantity on stock is at least same or more then quantity on invoice, diferences SAP posts on stock account in
FI. For moving average price, SAP posts in FI on other costs or other revenues account olny if quantity on
stock is less then quantity on invoice.

Having read your original question on the difference between the two prices
and the subsequent responses I feel I can offer you some advice on which
value to use for Raw Materials v's Finished Products.

Firstly the choice should be based on the accounting standard that is
appropriate in your country. Our organisation values stock using the two
methods where all finished products are valued based on standard while
ingredients purchased externally of the organisation are valued at moving
average. Having said that there are always exceptions as the external
products are used in the valuation of finished goods, so even though those
goods are valued at standard they do have components which are based on

Page 3

moving average.

There should not be any need to do journaling of differences in SAP as the
values are carried in the material ledger at moving average or standard and
accounting entries will balance out as the material ledger values are used
in the books of account. There is no reconciliation between moving average
and standard in the books of account. Provided you value your stocks
consistently then this should also satisfy the taxation authorities.

Change from Moving average price to Standard price in the material master can be done only
as long as there is no stock in our Plant(valuation area).
Once the stock is generated and valuated as per moving average price then change to standard
price is not possible.

I am able to change from MAP (V) to Standard Price (S)for a raw material even though there
is stock in accounting 1 view and material documents in MB51 for movement type 101
against purchase order, 261 etc. I had to change the MAP to equal Standard price through
MR21 before I could change. The material had a released standard cost.

Page 5

OSS note
185961 – Moving Average Price Calculation.
88320 – Strong variances when creating moving average price.

Never allow negative stocks for materials carried at the moving average.

Product Costing Master Data in SAPMarch 13th, 2009 by admin Leave a reply »
Product Costing Master Data in SAPFollowing are the important related master data to
Product Cost Controlling Integration.a. Material Master view related to Product Costingb.
Bill of Materialc. Work Center d. Routinge. Production Order f. Product cost collector
Material Master View related to Product CostingFollowing views of material master are
important for Product Costing.1. Accounting Views2. Costing Views1. Accounting Views :
Accounting View 1:a. Valuation Class field determines which GL account will be debited/
credited.b. Price Control : If material master is created for raw material category, price
control should be selected as Vwhich determines valuation of the raw material will be done
on Moving Average Price. If material master iscreated for SFG or FG, price control should be
selected as S which determines valuation of the SFG or FG willbe done on Standard Price.
Accounting View 2 :

Page 7

In the following example, inventory is valuated with the moving average price. The system analyses how
stock coverage and stock shortage affect prices.
For more information on the standard price and moving average price, see Price Control with and without
the Material Ledger
Problems with Stock Coverage
Example 1:
Stock Coverage at Goods Receipt
1. In the current period, there are a number of goods receipts for a material that is valuated with the
moving average price:
Goods receipt 1: 100 pieces at $1/pc.
Goods receipt 2: 100 pieces at $1/pc.
Goods receipt 3: 100 pieces at $1/pc.
Valuation data for the material:
Inventory quantity: 300 pieces Inventory value: 300 Moving average price: $1

2. A goods issue occurs for 180 pieces of this material.
Valuation data for the material:
Inventory quantity: 120 pieces Inventory value: 120 Moving average price: $1

3. In the invoice receipts for the goods receipts above, the invoice price varies from the purchase order
price in all three cases:
Invoice receipt 1: 100 pieces at $1.20/pc.
Invoice receipt 2: 100 pieces at $1.20/pc.
Invoice receipt 3: 100 pieces at $1.20/pc.
Because in all three cases there was adequate stock coverage at the time of the invoice receipt
(inventory quantity is at least as large as the invoice quantity), the price variances from all three invoices
are completely debited to inventory. In total, the remaining inventory quantity is debited with a variance of
$60. The individual orders do not check whether the remaining inventory quantity is also debited by other
orders
Valuation data for the material:
Inventory quantity: 120 pieces Inventory value: $180 Moving average price: $1.50
The result is an excessively high valuation price for the material stock and subsequent material
consumption, as all price variances from the various goods receipts flowed into the price.

Example 2:
Stock Coverage at Order Settlement
During the settlement of variances on manufacturing orders, the system checks whether a corresponding
stock coverage exists for the respective material. If multiple manufacturing orders were completed during
a period and the material stock at the end of the period is smaller than the sum of the receipts from
production orders, variances from all production orders are allocated to the material stock, assuming
adequate stock coverage.
The individual orders do not check whether the period ending inventory was already debited with
variances from another order!

1. One piece of material FERT is produced per day for 10 days in one period and delivered to
stock at a price of $100.

Valuation data for the material:
Inventory quantity: 10 pieces Inventory value: 100 USD Moving average price: 10 USD

2. There is only 1 piece left in material stock at period end. A variance of $10 is calculated for each
production order. Each individual production order checks stock coverage and determines that
the variances can be posted completely to stock.

Valuation data for the material at period end:
Inventory quantity: 1 piece Inventory value: 200 USD Moving average price: 200 USD

http://help.sap.com/saphelp_di471/helpdata/en/53/5df779aa3011d295a200a0c930328a/content.htm
http://help.sap.com/saphelp_di471/helpdata/en/53/5df779aa3011d295a200a0c930328a/content.htm

Page 8

The ending inventory of 1 piece is debited by $100 and the moving average price for material FERT
becomes $200.
Thus, the remaining material inventory is charged with variances that it didn't even cause, resulting in an
unrealistic price. Subsequent consumption is also valuated using this inflated price. The material stock
value no longer reflects the actual cost of goods manufactured.
The system reacts differently if it discovers a stock shortage.
Problems with Stock Shortage
Example 3: Stock Shortage at Invoice Receipt
If the invoiced amount of an externally procured material is less than the amount with which the goods
receipt is valuated, the invoice receipt should correct the material price by reducing the value of the
material stock. If, however, there is a stock shortage at the time of the invoice receipt, the stock value is
only reduced proportionally; the remaining amount is posted to the price difference account in Financial
Accounting.
Example 4: Stock Shortage at Order Settlement
Goods Receipt for the Order:
1. One piece of material FERT is produced per day for 10 days in one period and delivered to stock at a
price of $100.
Valuation data for the material:
Inventory quantity: 10 pieces Inventory value: 100 USD Moving average price: 10 USD
2. There is 1 piece left in material stock at period end. A variance of $10 is calculated for each production
order.
The variances of a manufacturing order, 100 USD, should be settled with a lot size of 10 pieces. There is
only 1 piece of the material left in stock.
Thus, the material stock is only partially debited (with 10 USD).
Valuation data for the material:
Inventory quantity: 1 piece Inventory value: 20 USD Moving average price: 20DM Price difference
account: 90 USD
No Goods Receipt for the Order:
If variances were calculated for a manufacturing order in one period even though there were no goods
receipts for that order in that period (such as with follow-up costs) the entirety of these variances are
posted to the price difference account. Here, it cannot be guaranteed the material stock value reflects the
actual position

Moving average price versus standard price for the valuation of
raw materials

 Speaker: Amadou LY

 Print

 E-mail

Every company at some stage considers whether to set inventory valuation to standard or
moving average price. In this session you'll learn the advantages and disadvantages to both as
well as the following knowledge points:

 The relationship of standard price and purchase price variance (PPV) analysis

 Standard price as a Key Performance Indicator (KPI) for Purchasing

 Advantages and disadvantages of standard price versus moving average price

 SAP® recommendations and common business practice

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