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TitleNanotechnology White Paper
File Size4.0 MB
Total Pages137
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
Table of Figures
	Figure 1. Diagram indicating relative scale of nanosized objects.
	Figure 2. Gallium Phosphide (GaP) Nanotrees.
	Figure 3. Computer image of aC-60 Fullerene. U.S. EPA.
	Figure 4. Computer images of various forms of carbon nanotubes.
	Figure 5. “Forest” of aligned carbon nanotubes.
	Figure 6. Zinc oxide nanostructure synthesized by a vapor-solid process.
	Figure 7. Computer image of a Gallium arsenide quantum dot of 465 atoms.
	Figure 8. Computer image of generations of a dendrimer.
	Figure 9. Computer image of a nano-biocomposite.
	Figure 10. Projected Stages of Nanotechnology Development.
	Figure 11. Federal Sources to Inform EPA’s Nanotechnology Activit
	Figure 12. NNI NSET Subcommittee Structure
	Figure 13. Nanoscale zero-valent iron encapsulated in an emulsion droplet.
	Figure 14. Piezoresistive cantilever sensor.
	Figure 15. EPA’s Risk Assessment Approach
	Figure 16. Life Cycle Perspective to Risk Assessment
	Figure 17. Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) image of aerosol-generated TiO2 nanoparticles.
	Figure 18. Zinc oxide nanostructures synthesized by a vapor-solid process.
	Figure 19. SEM of a scanning gate probe.
	Figure 20. Particle Toxicology Citations.
	Figure 21. Fluorescent nanoparticles in water flea
	Figure 22. EPA Office Roles, Statutory Authorities, and Categories of Research Needs Related to Nanotechnology.
Table of Tables
	Table 1. Examples of Products that Use Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials
	Table 2. Outcomes for Sustainable Use of Major Resources and Resource Systems
	Table 3. Potential U.S. Energy Savings from Eight Nanotechnology Applications (Adapted from Brown, 2005 a)
	Table 4. Potential Sources of Occupational Exposure for Various Synthesis Methods
	Table 5. Examples of Potential Sources of General Population and/or Consumer Exposure for Several Product Types
	Table 6. Summary of Workgroup Recommendations Regarding Nanomaterials
1.0 Introduction
	1.1 Purpose
	1.2 Nanotechnology Defined
	1.3 Why Nanotechnology Is Important to EP
	1.4 National and International Context
	1.5 What EPA is Doing with Respect to Nanotechnology
	1.6 Opportunities and Challenges
2.0 Environmental Benefits of Nanotechnology
	2.1 Introduction
	2.2 Benefits Through Environmental Technology Applications
	2.3 Benefits through Other Applications that Support Sustainability
3.0 Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials
	3.1 Introduction
	3.2 Chemical Identification and Characterization of Nanomaterials
	3.3 Environmental Fate of Nanomaterials
	3.4 Environmental Detection and Analysis of Nanomaterials
	3.5 Human Exposures and Their Measurement and Control
	3.6 Human Health Effects of Nanomaterials
	3.7 Ecological Effects of Nanomaterials
4.0 Responsible Development
	4.1 Responsible Development of Nanoscale Materials
	4.2 Program Areas
5.0 EPA’s Research Needs for Nanomaterials
	5.1 Research Needs for Environmental Applications
	5.2 Research Needs for Risk Assessment
6.0 Recommendations
	6.1 Research Recommendations for Environmental Applications
	6.2 Research Recommendations for Risk Assessment
	6.3 Recommendations for Pollution Prevention and Environmental Stewardship
	6.4 Recommendations for Collaborations
	6.5 Recommendation to Convene an Intra-Agency Workgroup
	6.6 Recommendation for Training
	6.7 Summary of Recommendations
7.0 References
Appendix A: Glossary of Nanotechnology Terms
Appendix B: Principles of Environmental Stewardship Behavior
Appendix C: EPA’s Nanotechnology Research Framework
Appendix D: EPA STAR Grants for Nanotechnology
Appendix E: List of Nanotechnology White Paper External Peer Reviewers and their Affiliations

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