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TitlePhytohormones and abiotic stress tolerance in plants
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LanguageEnglish
File Size10.0 MB
Total Pages311
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                            001Download PDF (46.0 KB)front-matter
	Phytohormones and Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants
		Preface
		Contents
002Download PDF (675.7 KB)fulltext
	Chapter 1: Signal Transduction of Phytohormones Under Abiotic Stresses
		1.1 Introduction
		1.2 Auxins
		1.3 Gibberellins
		1.4 Cytokinins
		1.5 Abscisic Acid
		1.6 Jasmonic Acid
		1.7 Ethylene
		1.8 Salicylic Acid
		1.9 Brassinosteroids
		1.10 Nitric Oxide
		1.11 Polyamines
		1.12 Crosstalk
		1.13 Conclusion
		References
003Download PDF (462.9 KB)fulltext
	Chapter 2: Cross-Talk Between Phytohormone Signaling Pathways Under Both Optimal and Stressful Environmental Conditions
		2.1 Introduction
		2.2 Drought Stress
			2.2.1 Stomatal Closure in Response to Drought Stress
				2.2.1.1 ABA Accumulation in Guard Cells Regulates Stomatal Closure
				2.2.1.2 ABA Regulates the Activity of Ion Channels
				2.2.1.3 ABA Activates Ca2+ Signaling Pathways
				2.2.1.4 H2O2 and NO Are Associated with ABA in the Regulation of Stomatal Closure
				2.2.1.5 Cross-Talk Between ABA and Ethylene Involves H2O2 and NO
				2.2.1.6 JA Cross-Talk Involves Protein Kinase Phosphorylation Cascades
				2.2.1.7 A Comparison of ABA- and Drought-Mediated Stomatal Closure
			2.2.2 ABA-Mediated Regulation of Gene Expression
				2.2.2.1 ABA-Dependent Gene Expression During Drought Stress
				2.2.2.2 MAPK-Directed Phosphorylation Cascades Also Act as Cross-Talk Points
				2.2.2.3 Maintenance of Primary Root Growth During Water Stress
				2.2.2.4 Regulation of Lateral and Adventitious Root Development During Water Stress
				2.2.2.5 A Summary of Drought Regulation of Root Growth and Development
		2.3 Hormonal Cross-Talk Associated with Wounding
			2.3.1 Ethylene Production Increases After Mechanical Wounding
			2.3.2 Rapid Signaling Events Associated with Mechanical Wounding
			2.3.3 Gene Expression Patterns Associated with Mechanical Wounding
			2.3.4 Hormonal Responses to Mechanical Wounding Are Rapid and May Also Be Involved in Biotic Stress Response
		2.4 Signaling During Abiotic Stress Conditions
			2.4.1 Common Regulatory Elements of Abiotic Stress Responses
			2.4.2 Cross-Talk Between Abiotic and Biotic Stresses
			2.4.3 Stress Tolerance
				2.4.3.1 Gene Targets
				2.4.3.2 Strategies for Developing Stress Tolerance in Plants
		References
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	Chapter 3: Phytohormones in Salinity Tolerance: Ethylene and Gibberellins Cross Talk
		3.1 Introduction
		3.2 Brief Overview of Plant Response to Salinity Stress and Methods of Its Alleviation
		3.3 Phytohormones in Salinity Tolerance
		3.4 Ethylene in Salt Tolerance
		3.5 Gibberellins in Salinity Tolerance
		3.6 Ethylene and Gibberellin Acid in Salt Tolerance: Cross Talk
		3.7 Conclusion
		References
005Download PDF (187.3 KB)fulltext
	Chapter 4: Function of Nitric Oxide Under Environmental Stress Conditions
		4.1 Introduction
		4.2 Basic Biochemistry of NO
		4.3 Nitric Oxide: A New Hormone?
		4.4 Cross Talk Between NO and Other Hormones Under Stress Conditions
			4.4.1 Abscisic Acid
			4.4.2 Ethylene
			4.4.3 Salicylic Acid
		4.5 Nitric Oxide and Abiotic Stresses
			4.5.1 Heavy Metal
				4.5.1.1 Cadmium
				4.5.1.2 Arsenic
				4.5.1.3 Aluminum
			4.5.2 Wounding
			4.5.3 Salinity
			4.5.4 Atmospheric Pollutants (Ozone and Ultraviolet Radiation)
		4.6 Perspectives
		References
006Download PDF (189.1 KB)fulltext
	Chapter 5: Auxin as Part of the Wounding Response in Plants
		5.1 How Do Plants Integrate Wounding and Auxin Signals?
		5.2 Auxin-Related Gene Expression Is Modulated by Wounding
		5.3 Auxin Involvement on Wounding Response Is Spatially Limited
		5.4 Other Downstream Signaling Molecules in the Wound Signal Transduction Pathway
		5.5 Conclusions
		References
007Download PDF (441.9 KB)fulltext
	Chapter 6: How Do Lettuce Seedlings Adapt to Low-pH Stress Conditions? A Mechanism for Low-pH-Induced Root Hair Formation in Lettuce Seedlings
		6.1 Introduction
		6.2 The STOP1 Gene in H+ and Al Tolerances
		6.3 Effects of Low pH on Hydroponically Cultured Lettuce Seedlings
		6.4 Role of Plant Hormones in Root Hair Formation
		6.5 Role of Light in Root Hair Formation
		6.6 Ethylene Biosynthesis Gene Expression During Root Hair Formation in Lettuce
		6.7 Ethylene Receptor Gene Expression During Root Hair Formation in Lettuce
		6.8 Reorganization of Cortical Microtubules in Root Epidermal Cells
		6.9 Microtubule Organization and Biotic/Abiotic Stresses
		6.10 Role of Manganese (Mn) in Root Hair Formation
		6.11 Role of Chlorogenic Acid and Sugar in Root Hair Formation
		6.12 Conclusions
		References
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	Chapter 7: Cytokinin Metabolism
		7.1 Introduction
			7.1.1 Structural Variation and Biological Activity
			7.1.2 Biosynthesis of Cytokinins
			7.1.3 Cytokinin Metabolism
				7.1.3.1 N-Glucosylation
			7.1.4 Cytokinin Genes and Their Functions
			7.1.5 Future Direction
		References
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	Chapter 8: Origin of Brassinosteroids and Their Role in Oxidative Stress in Plants
		8.1 Introduction
		8.2 Origin and Structures of Brassinosteroids
			8.2.1 Occurrence of Brassinosteroids
			8.2.2 Chemical Structures of Brassinosteroids
			8.2.3 Biosynthetic Pathways of Brassinosteroids
		8.3 Brassinosteroids and Oxidative Stress
		References
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	Chapter 9: Hormonal Intermediates in the Protective Action of Exogenous Phytohormones in Wheat Plants Under Salinity
		9.1 Introduction
		9.2 Brassinosteroids as Inductors of Plant Resistance to Abiotic Stress Factors
			9.2.1 Role of Endogenous Cytokinins in the Manifestation of the Physiological Effects of 24-Epibrassinolide on Wheat Plants
				9.2.1.1 Normal Growth Conditions
				9.2.1.2 Conditions of NaCl Salinity
		9.3 Salicylic Acid as Inductor of Unspecific Plant Resistance
			9.3.1 The Role of Endogenous ABA in the Regulation of Preadaptive Effect of Salicylic Acid on Wheat Plants to Dehydration Conditions
			9.3.2 The Role of Endogenous ABA in SA-Induced Activation of Protective Reactions in Salinity Stressed Plants
		9.4 Importance of Endogenous Cytokinins in Manifestation of Physiological Effects of Jasmonates on Wheat Plants
			9.4.1 Effect of Me-JA on Wheat Resistance to Sodium Chloride Salinity
		9.5 Conclusion
		References
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	Chapter 10: The Role of Phytohormones in the Control of Plant Adaptation to Oxygen Depletion
		10.1 Introduction
		10.2 Ethylene
		10.3 Abscisic Acid
		10.4 Gibberellins
		10.5 Auxin
		10.6 Cytokinin
		10.7 Conclusions
		References
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	Chapter 11: Stress Hormone Levels Associated with Drought Tolerance vs. Sensitivity in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)
		11.1 Introduction
		11.2 Role of Phytohormones in Response to Drought
		11.3 Salicylic Acid
		11.4 Jasmonates
		11.5 Abscisic Acid
		11.6 Characterization of Drought Tolerance in Sunflower Inbred Lines
			11.6.1 Evaluation of Agronomic Parameters
			11.6.2 Evaluation of Physiological Parameters
		11.7 Evaluation of Segregating Populations
		References
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	Chapter 12: An Insight into the Role of Salicylic Acid and Jasmonic Acid in Salt Stress Tolerance
		12.1 Introduction
		12.2 Biosynthesis of Salicylic Acid
		12.3 Biosynthesis of Jasmonic Acid
		12.4 Salinity Stress and Plant Responses: A General Aspect
			12.4.1 Photosynthetic Responses Under Salt Stress
			12.4.2 Reactive Oxygen Species and Salt Stress
			12.4.3 Ion Homeostasis Under Salt Stress
			12.4.4 Salt Tolerance Mechanism by Salt Overly Sensitive Pathway
		12.5 Phytohormones in Salinity Tolerance
			12.5.1 Role of Salicylic Acid in Plants Under Salinity Stress
			12.5.2 Role of Jasmonic Acid in Salt-Stressed Plants
		12.6 Interaction Between Salicylic Acid and Jasmonic Acid
			12.6.1 Interaction Between Salicylic Acid and Jasmonic Acid at Signaling Level
			12.6.2 Biosynthetic Interaction Between Salicylic Acid and Jasmonic Acid
		12.7 Conclusion and Future Prospects
		References
014Download PDF (43.6 KB)back-matter
	Index
                        

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