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TitleProgress Test 03
TagsChemistry Facebook Physical Sciences Radiocarbon Dating Carbon
File Size2.6 MB
Total Pages5
Document Text Contents
Page 1

How do scientists know how old an object or human remains
are? One of the best- known methods they use is radiocarbon
dating, also known as Carbon-14 dating. It was developed in
1949, and quickly became an important tool for archaeologists
and palaeontologists when dating things such as bone,
wood, cloth and plant fibres - basically, anything that
contains carbon.

Radiocarbon dating is based on a simple natural
phenomenon. As the Earth's upper atmosphere is hit by
the sun's rays, nitrogen atoms are turned into a form of
carbon known as Carbon-14 (C-14), which is different to the
normal Carbon-12 (C-12) that exists in all living things. C-12 is
stable, that is, it doesn't change its form. C-14, on the other
hand, does change and for this reason it is called 'unstable'.
Atmospheric activity, such as storms, brings the new form of
carbon to Earth. Because it acts the same way as Carbon-12,
C-14 enters plants through photosynthesis. Animals eating
those plants take in Carbon-14 as well as Carbon-12. This
process continues as long as the plant or animal is alive.

The ratio of C-14 to C-12 remains about the same as the ratio
in the atmosphere. When the organism dies and is no longer
able to take in C-14, the ratio of C-14 begins to gradually
decrease. The rate of decrease is half of the quantity at death
every 5,730 years. That number is known as the half-life of
C-14. Using this technique, many materials can be directly
dated.

Read the texts and choose the best answer to
each question.

Carbon-14 Dating

Reading

1 Which of the following cannot be dated by the
radiocarbon method?

A dinosaur remains
B metal tools
C trees
D animal fossils

2 Where does Carbon-14 come from?
A the sun's rays
B an unusual type of carbon
C stable carbon
D a form of nitrogen

3 How does Carbon-14 reach our planet?
A through photosynthesis
B in living things
C by movement in the atmosphere
D by a complex chemical reaction

4 What happens to C-14 in an animal when it dies?
A It changes.
B It becomes stable.
C It goes back into the atmosphere.
D It remains the same.

5 Which statement about radiocarbon dating is true?
A It takes 5,730 years for C-14 to disappear.
B Every 5,730 years the amount of C-14 is halved.
C C-14 stays in the atmosphere for 5,730 years.
D 5,730 years after death, C-12 turns into C-14.

3Progress Test Units 5 & 6
Name:
Date:
Mark: / 80 marks

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Page 2

In 2004, when Harvard University students Mark Zuckerberg,
Dustin Moskovitz, Eduardo Saverin and Chris Hughes got
together to launch a web site designed to put students in
touch with one another, they had no idea how incredibly
successful their new venture would become. They called
it thefacebook.com, and the site was an instant hit at the
university. A month later, they enlarged it to include students
from three more universities. By 2005, this had grown to
800 universities and colleges across the United States, and a
membership of more than five million active users. That same
year, in August, the site's name was changed to Facebook.

While the company began as a project for a group of Harvard
students, today it has offices throughout the world, with
more than 3000 employees. Facebook's popularity continues
to grow day by day, and the statistics are staggering. The
company claims that it has more than 800 million active users
(users who have logged onto Facebook over the last 30 day
period) on the site. There are tens of thousands of new

registrations daily, and more
than 250 million photos are
uploaded every day. As there's no limit
to the number of images a member can upload and
new members join Facebook every day, this number will
continue to rise. The site's global reach is impressive, too -
there are more than 70 languages available on the site and
75% of users are outside of the US.

Other sites, such as MySpace, have tried to compete with
Facebook but have dropped in popularity. It seems likely that
Facebook will be the first social networking site to reach one
billion active users.

Facebook

6 What was the original purpose of Facebook?
A for use by students at one university
B to show people with no idea how to contact

their friends
C for the four Harvard friends to stay in touch
D to create a successful business

7 How was the site initially expanded?
A by changing its name
B by turning it into a project
C by making it available throughout the US
D by allowing non-Harvard students to use it

8 Today, Facebook is
A less popular than MySpace.
B the fastest growing company in the world.
C a global company.
D a part of Harvard University.

9 How many people regularly use Facebook?
A 1 billion
B 75 million
C 250 million
D 800 million

10 Which of the following statements is true?
A Millions of people join the site every day.
B Not all members are active users.
C The majority of members are American.
D Members must upload photos within 30 days.

Marks / 10

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Page 3

A Complete the sentences with the correct form of the words.
1 David isn't an experienced chess player; he's just a . BEGIN

2 The shop offers a variety of domestic . APPLY

3 I really enjoy activities such as trekking and hiking. OUT

4 Look at the replay if you want that Rooney was offside! PROVE

5 If you don't exercise at all, it can be very to your health. HARM

6 The idea of hiking in the freezing cold is to most people. APPEAL

7 Joey is always on his computer; I think he's got an . ADDICT

8 We had a very day at the new museum; it was fantastic. ENJOY

9 It was to everyone that Dom was cheating at cards! EVIDENCE

10 Frank's with technology began when he was quite young. FASCINATE

B Complete the sentences with the correct form of these phrasal verbs.
feel up to get together hook up to plug in run into set off sit around sleep in switch on turn down
1 The best thing about the weekend is that I can !

2 Of course the computer’s not working! You forgot to it .

3 Last Friday night, we with our cousins, who we hadn't seen in ages.

4 You'll never guess who I at the library yesterday!

5 Someone hit my car, which the alarm and woke up the whole neighbourhood!

6 I'm sorry, but I don't want to go out tonight; I just don't it.

7 Meredith asked me to go to her party but I had to her invitation as I was sick.

8 If you don't it the computer properly, the scanner won't work.

9 You're so lazy, Michael! All you do is the house and watch TV.

10 Please don't the light. I have a terrible headache and the light bothers me.

C Circle the correct words.
1 Just press / pull this button and the machine will start.

2 It's impossible to navigate / steer a bike if you have a broken arm.

3 Could you please tell me the cost / price of this flat-screen TV?

4 Where's the instruction manual / pack for the new washing machine?

5 I need to find a cash / money machine before I can go shopping.

6 I wanted to watch the match on TV but I lost / missed it.

7 This minivan can seat / sit eight people in the back and two in the front.

8 Ian was the fastest swimmer and was awarded / rewarded the gold medal.

9 Wow! I had no idea this was a statue; it's so lifelike / natural!

10 I couldn't believe it when my team beat / won Real Madrid!

Vocabulary

Marks / 10

Marks / 10

Marks / 10

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Page 4

D Complete the sentences with one word in each gap.
1 Yes, you go out with your friends this weekend. You have my permission.

2 The students not be in the chemistry lab without a teacher. It isn't allowed.

3 You to update your antivirus software or your computer won't be protected.

4 Anita was a very clever child. She was to count to 100 when she was three!

5 I'm not sure how to fix the printer, but we try restarting the computer. What do you think?

6 I want to buy a car and I need your advice. I buy a new one or a used one?

E Complete the sentences with these words in the correct form.
can't could might must needn't should (x2) would
1 Why haven't they arrived? They been here by now.

2 Being the first person in space been an incredible experience.

3 You idiot! Why did you drive through that red light? You killed us!

4 Bob given you his old iPhone, but you didn’t ask him.

5 I got the virus through an infected attachment, but I don't really know.

6 Hector been at the concert because he can't stand the band’s music.

7 You bought better seats for the game. I can't see anything from here!

8 Helen made dinner as I brought a pizza for us to eat.

F Circle the correct words.
1 We stopped to check / checking the map because we were lost.

2 My personal trainer let me to lift / lift some heavier weights today.

3 Some teenagers are only interested in update / updating their Facebook pages.

4 It’s no use to buy / buying expensive trainers if you don't wear them.

5 Mum remembers to watch / watching Italy win the 1982 football World Cup.

6 My boyfriend pretended to like / liking my cooking, but it really was awful.

7 Terry wasn’t confident enough to join / join the chess club on his own.

8 We had better hurry / hurrying or the coach will start the training session without us.

G Complete the second sentences so that they have a similar meaning to the first sentences.
Use the words in bold. You must use between two and five words including the word given.

1 I think you broke my calculator, Rob. you

You broke my calculator, , Rob?

2 Excuse me. Do you have any other printers in the shop? tell

Excuse me. you have any other printers in the shop?

3 You're still working on the project, Amanda! finished

Amanda, the project yet?

4 The technician continued to explain how the machine works. on

The technician how the machine works.

Grammar

Marks / 6

Marks / 8

Marks / 8

Marks / 8

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