Download Rock Slope Engineering Civil and Mining PDF

TitleRock Slope Engineering Civil and Mining
File Size4.9 MB
Total Pages345
Table of Contents
                            Foreword
Contents
Overview
Development and Industry Acceptance of Nuclear Gauges
Bureau of Reclamation Experience with Construction and Control of Earth Materials for Hydraulic Structures
Variability in Field Density Tests
NRCS Experience with Field Density Test Methods Including the Sand-Cone, Nuclear Gage, Rubber Balloon, Drive-Cylinder, and Clod Test
Compactive Effort Applied by Hand-Operated Compactors
Equation for Complete Compaction Curve of Fine-grained Soils and Its Applications
Construction Quality Control Testing of Compacted Fills: Optimum Moisture-Density Values
Historical Perspectives on Earthwork Engineering and Creating a Passion for Earthwork Excellence
Compaction Control to Minimize Settlement of Fill Supporting a Shopping Center
Compaction Control Bermuda Sports Centre
Dynamic Compaction of Surface Mine Spoils to Limit Settlements Within Commercial Developments
Compaction and Performance of Loess Embankments
Evaluation of Procedures Presented in TR-26 and TR-27 for Design and Construction of Earth Fills Using Soil Containing Oversize Rock Particles
Comparison of Laboratory Data and Field Performance for Fills Subject to Hydrocompression
Proposed Compaction Specifications to Minimize Hydrocompression-lnduced Settlements in Fills Supporting Residential Structures
The Effect of Soil Composition and Moisture Content on Dry Density and Hydraulic Conductivity of Clays
Impact of Heavy Metals (Pb, Zn, and Cr) on the Hydraulic Conductivity of Sand/Bentonite Liner
Compaction Conditions and Scale-Dependent Hydraulic Conductivity of Compacted Clay Liners
Variability of Initial Subgrade Modulus at Ohio SHRP Test Road
Quality Control of Earth Fills Using Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR)
Quality Control of Compacted Layers with Field and Laboratory Seismic Testing Devices
Compaction and Performance of Loess Embankments
Author Index
Subject Index
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 2

STP 1384

Constructing and Controlling
Compaction of Earth Fills

Donald W. Shanklin, Keith R. Rademacher, and James R. Talbot,
editors

ASTM Stock Number: STP1384

ASTM
100 Barr Harbor Drive
West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959
Printed in the U. S. A.

Page 172

168 CONSTRUCTING AND CONTROLLING COMPACTION OF EARTH FILLS

St. Clairsville, Ohio - Commercial Development

This site (see Fig. 2) is located along 1-70 100 miles east of Columbus,
Ohio and includes 80 acres (32.3 hectares) of existing mine spoil. The thickness
of mine spoil within the building(s) limits, generally single story masonry block
supported structures, ranged from zero (rock) to 70 feet (21 m). The site
preparation for this site entailed handling 2.5 million cubic yards (approx 2.5
million cubic meters) of on-site mine spoils/soils in order to provide a 45 acre
(18.2 hectares) level building pad. This site was constructed using 18 in. lifts (0 5
m) conventionally compacted to densities exceeding 95% standard proctor and
dynamically compacted at intervals of 15 feet (4.5 m). Dynamic Compaction was
applied at nodal points of 7 feet (2 m) using a 12-ton (10,886-kg) weight falling
30 feet (9 m) The number of drops at any location was less than 5 drops Crater
depths ranged from 12 in. (0.3 m) to about 30 in. (0.75 m) The last four (4) feet
(12 m) of the fill was placed using conventional compaction procedures with a
lift thickness of 8 inches (0.2 m) The masonry block walls and the columns were
constructed using spread footings with an allowable bearing value of 3000 pounds
per square foot (143.6 kN/m 2) and reinforced similar to a grade beam system

An extensive instrumentation program, which includes surveyed
settlement plates, pre and post construction geotechnical drilling, and monitoring
benchmarks set within the buildings, was completed and is on-going at this site.
Table 1 shown below summarizes the data obtained from the instruments Notice
that within the 70 feet (21 m) of dynamically compacted fills underlying the
buildings, only V4 in (6.4 ram) of settlement has occurred over the past 4 years In
contrast, the parking areas surrounding the buildings that were conventionally
compacted settled 3.55 in (90 ram)

Table No. 1 - Settlement Data for St. Clairsville

Fill Conditions

Dynamic Compacted Fills
Non-Dynamic Compacted
Fills

Total Settlements
(in.)/(mm)
At
Completion

6.5/165 1
075/19.1

To Date
(I/99)

6.75/171.5
4.30/109

Average
SPT N-Values

22
12

With more than I million square feet (90,000 sq m ) of finished
commercial floor space completed at this site, no structural distress has been
observed. Finally it is of utmost importance to note that the foundation units were
constructed immediately upon completion of the fills without any time being
allowed for consolidation related settlements.

Page 173

SATYAPRIYA AND GALLAGHER ON COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENTS 169

Clarksburg, West Virginia - Commercial Development

This site is located along 1-79, 90 miles south of Pittsburgh, PA in
Clarksburg, WV and includes 65 acres (26.3 hectares) of existing mine spoil. The
thickness of mine spoil within the store limits ranged from zero (rock) to 50 feet
(15 m). The site preparation entailed handling 1.5 million cubic yards (approx.
1.5 million cubic meters) of on-site mine spoils/soils in order to provide a 25 acre
(10.1 hectares) level building pad. This site was constructed using 18 in. lifts (0.5
m) conventionally compacted to densities exceeding 95% standard proctor and
dynamically compacted at intervals of 15 feet (4.5 m). Dynamic compaction was
applied using the same spacing of nodal points, weight and height of fall as the St.
Clairsville project. The number of drops at any location was also less than 5
drops. Crater depths ranged from 12 in. (0,3 m) to about 36 in. (1 m). The last
five feet (1.5 m) of the fill was placed using conventional compaction procedures
with a lift thickness of 8 in. (0.2 m) at a minimum 100% standard proctor density.
The masonry block walls and the columns were constructed using spread footings
with an allowable bearing value of 3000 pounds per square foot (143.6 kN/m 2 )
and reinforced similar to a grade beam system.

An extensive instrumentation program, which includes surveyed
settlement plates, pre and post construction geotechnical drilling, and monitoring
benchmarks set within the buildings, was completed and is on-going at this site.
Table 2 shown below summarizes the data obtained from the instruments. Within
the 50 feet (15 m) of dynamically compacted fills underlying the buildings, only
1A in. (1.3 mm) of settlement has occurred over the past 2 years. In contrast, the
parking areas surrounding the buildings that were conventionally compacted
settled 3.0 in. (76 mm).

Table No. 2 - Settlement Data for Clarksburg

Fill Conditions

Dynamic Compacted Fills
Non-Dynamic Compacted
Fills

Total Settlements
(in./mm)
At
Completion

4.5/114
0.5/13

To Date
(1/99)

5.0/127
3.5/89

Average
SPT N-Values

35
15

With more than 250,000 square feet (22,504 m 2) of finished commercial
floor space completed at this site, minor structural distress has been observed in
the form of expansion joint movements of 1.25 in. (31.75 mm). Finally, it is of
utmost importance to note that the foundation units were constructed immediately
upon completion of the fills without any time being allowed for consolidation
related settlements.

Page 344

INDEX 341

Soil problems, subsurface, 137
Soil rock fill, 149
Soils, 39, 58, 126

clayey, 229
compaction, subgrade, 274
compaction testing, 185
fine-grained, 113
mechanics, 137
standards for compaction

characteristics
ASTM D 698, 93, 173

Stability analysis, 173
Stiffness gage, soil, 274
Subgrade modulus, 274
Survey networks, 163

T

Terzaghi, Karl, 137
Three-point impact compaction,

39
Time domain reflectometry, 290
Troxler nuclear gauge, 3

V

Vibrating plate compactor, 93
Vibratory compactors, 156
Vibratory hammer test, 39

W

Water content, 3, 72, 126, 209,
229

compact soils, 290
nuclear device, 58
nuclear gauges, 3

Wet density, 39
Wetting tests

response to, 197, 209

Z

Zinc, 243

Page 345

ISBN 0-8031-2859-2

Similer Documents