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Titlespecies, biogeocenotic and biospherical levels of living things organization
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UDC 575(075.8)


Ratified on meeting of the Central methodical committee

of Zaporizhzhia State Medical University

and it is recommended for the use in educational process for foreign students

(protocol N ___ from ___________)

This text book is composed by:

Head of Department of Medical Biology, Doctor of Biological Sciences A.B. Prikhodko

Associate Professor of the Department of Medical Biology A.P. Popovich

Associate Professor of the Department of Language Training

of Foreign Citizens and General Theoretical Disciplines T.I. Yemets

Assistant of the Department of Medical Biology A.Y. Maleeva


Head of Biological Chemistry Department Zaporozhye State Medical University, Doctor of

Chemical Sciences Alexandrova E.V.

Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor of Department Pathological Physiology Abramov A.V.

Population-species, biogeocenotic and biospherical levels of living things

organization : text-book for the first year training students of the medical faculty / comp.:

A.B. Prikhodko, A.P. Popovich, T.I. Yemets, A.Y. Maleeva. – Zaporizhzhia : ZSMU,

2018. – 161 p.

Medical Parasitology is a fundamental discipline within the medical sciences. Study of the

structure, organization and life-cycles of different parasites gives the doctors strong knowledge about

parasitizm for searching the most effective methods of treatment.

The present Text Book for the first year training students of the Medical faculty has been

written in accordance with the Academic Curriculum on Medical Biology accepted by all Medical

University of Ukraine. Efforts have been made to provide latest material facts. Improved illustration

wherever necessary are provided, for a better understanding of the subject by the students. Detailed

discussions, a range of test questions continue to be the main attractions of the book.

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subcutaneous tissue. The female worms measure 40 to 70 mm in length and 0.5 mm in

diameter, while the males measure 30 to 34 mm in length and 0.35 to 0.43 mm in diameter.

Adults produce microfilaria measuring 250 to 300 μm by 6 to 8 μm, which are sheathed and

have diurnal periodicity. Microfilaria has been recovered from spinal fluids, urine, and

sputum. During the day they are found in peripheral blood, but during the noncirculation

phase, they are found in the lungs. The fly ingests microfilaria during a blood meal. After

ingestion, the microfilaria loses the sheaths and migrates from the fly's midgut through the

hemocoel to the thoracic muscles of the arthropod. There the microfilaria develops into first-

stage larvae and subsequently into third-stage infective larvae. The third-stage infective larvae

migrate to the fly's proboscis and can infect another human when the fly takes a blood meal.

Patogenesis. Loa Loa parasites infect human hosts by travelling through subcutaneous

tissues such as the back chest, groin, scalp, and eye. These parasites cause inflammation in the

skin wherever they travel. If a parasite stops in one place for a short period of time, the human

host will suffer from local inflammation known as Calabar swellings. These often occur in

the wrist and ankle joints but disappear as soon as the parasite begins to move again. Parasites

can also travel through and infect the eye, causing the swelling of the eye. Common

symptoms include itching, joint pain and fatigue.

Diagnosis. The main methods of diagnosis include the presence of microfilaria in the

blood, the presence of worm in the eye, and the presence of skin dwelling. Surgical removal

of the worm can be performed. The common treatment for the disease is a use of drugs.


 Isolation and treatment the sick persons

 Elimination of Chrysops

 Protection from the fly’s bites, using repellents and insecticides, anti-mosquito nets.

 Destroying the places of gad-flies and mosquitos development (puddles, ditches)

The main methods of the laboratory diagnostics of helminthosis.

Native smear

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Using this method one can find out eggs and larvae. A small piece of feces (size is

about matches head) place on a microscope slide into a couple drops of glycerin – water

solution (1:1) and stirred with a wooden stick, taking away the large fragments. Then

carefully lower a cover slip over it and microscoped a slide.

Refining method based on flotation.

One should prepare suspense of feces in a saturated salt solution. The relative density of

this solution is much greater than the one of helminth’s eggs. That is why the eggs are floating

on the surface. The film on the surface is to be microscoped. The saturated solution is

prepared by solving of 400 gr of NaCl in the litre of water while boiling. The solution is to be

filtered and chilled. Put 5 – 10 gr of feces in glass, add the saturated solution of salt and

prepare the suspense. Large pieces that are floating must be removed. Remove the film of the

surface by a wire hook after 30 – 40 minutes of sedimentation. Eggs of Trematodes, Taeniides

and nonfertilized eggs of Ascaris do not float. That is why the sediment must be carefully


- Special method of enterobiosis and taeniarhinchosis diagnostics.

These methods are based on studying of perianal and rectal mucous coat. Make a scrape

from perianal zone with a cotton wool tampon, tightly reeled on a wooden stick and smeared

with water solution of glycerine (50%). Wooden spatel can be also used.

Perform this procedure in the morning before defecation or in the evening 2 – 3 hours after the

patient has gone to sleep. Children may undergo this procedure after their midday sleep.

Received mucous is to be mixed with 1 – 2 drops of glycerine solution (50%) and


- Immunologic methods.

These methods include:

- skin allergic tests and

- serologic reactions.

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