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Table of Contents
                            Introduction to the Series
Part I: Sports Injury Surveillance
	Chapter 1: Sports Injury Surveillance in Japan (from Sports Safety Association)
		1.1 Introduction
		1.2 Statistics
			1.2.1 Overview of Incidence
			1.2.2 Incidence by Age Bracket
			1.2.3 Incidence by Month
			1.2.4 Most Frequent Anatomical Sites
			1.2.5 Major Injury (and by Gender)
			1.2.6 Types of Sports (Overview)
			1.2.7 Injury by Types of Sports Activities
	Chapter 2: Sports Injury Surveillance in Japanese Junior and Senior High School Students
		2.1 Introduction
		2.2 Subjects and Methods
		2.3 Results
			2.3.1 The Characteristics of the 11 Sports
				The Number and Rate of Sports-Related Injuries
				The Number and Rate of Sports-Related Injuries in Male and Female Students
				The Number and Rate of Sports-Related Injuries in Junior and Senior High School Students
				The Number of Sports-Related Injuries by Month
				The Number of Sports-Related Injuries by Body Part
				The Number of Sports-Related Injuries by Type
				The Number and Rate of Sports-Related Injuries by Sport
			2.3.2 Analysis of Individual Sports-Related Injuries
				Severe Head and Neck Injury
				Four Types of Specific Sports-Related Injury
			2.3.3 Conclusion
		The Numbers of Students Affiliated with the 11 Clubs
	Chapter 3: Injury and Illness Surveillance Among Olympic Athletes: Summary of the 2010 Winter, and the 2008 and 2012 Summer Olympic Games
		3.1 Introduction
		3.2 Methods
			3.2.1 Injury and Illness Report Form
			3.2.2 Definition of Injury and Illness
		3.3 Results
			3.3.1 Injury Risk in Different Sports
			3.3.2 Injury Location and Type
			3.3.3 Injury Mechanism, Circumstance, and Severity
			3.3.4 Incidence and Distribution of Illnesses
		3.4 Discussion
			3.4.1 Incidence and Distribution, Type and Cause of Illnesses
			3.4.2 Practical Implications and Further Research
		3.5 Conclusion
Part II: Concussion and Severe Head–Neck Injury
	Chapter 4: Concussions in Junior Rugby Football Athletes and Their Prevention
		4.1 Introduction
			4.1.1 Definition of Concussion
		4.2 Injury Incidence
			4.2.1 mTBI
			4.2.2 Rugby Football
		4.3 Prevention of Concussion
			4.3.1 Protective Equipment
			4.3.2 Rule Change
			4.3.3 Education
	Chapter 5: Prevention of Head and Neck Trauma in Rugby
		5.1 Introduction
		5.2 Current Realities of Head and Neck Trauma in Rugby in Japan
		5.3 Causes of Injury
			5.3.1 Causes of Injury Related to Tackles
			5.3.2 Causes of Injury Related to Scrums
			5.3.3 Causes of Injury Related to Tight Play (a Maul or Ruck)
		5.4 Prevention of Head and Neck Trauma
		5.5 Prevention of Head and Neck Trauma Due to Tackles
		5.6 Prevention of Head and Neck Trauma in a Scrum
		5.7 Prevention of Head and/or Neck Trauma in Tight Situations (a Maul or Ruck)
		5.8 Conclusion
	Chapter 6: Severe Head & Neck Injury and Its Prevention in Judo
		6.1 Introduction
		6.2 Head and Neck Injuries in Judo Athletes
			6.2.1 Concussion
			6.2.2 Severe Traumatic Head Injuries
			6.2.3 Severe Traumatic Neck Injuries
			6.2.4 Judo-Related Injuries During Regular Class and After School Activities
		6.3 Principle of Judo
		6.4 Prevention of Traumatic Head Injury in Judo
			6.4.1 All Japan Judo Federation
			6.4.2 The Ministry of Education in Japan
			6.4.3 Practice in Prevention of Traumatic Head Injury
			6.4.4 Referee Regulations in Judo Contests for Injury Prevention
		Glossary of Judo Terms
	Chapter 7: Concussion and Severe Head-Neck Injury: An Approach for Their Prevention in Rugby and Judo
		7.1 Introduction
		7.2 Epidemiology of Concussions
		7.3 Clinical Symptoms of Concussions
		7.4 Clinical Grading of Concussions
		7.5 Mechanical Aspects of Concussions
		7.6 Experimental Studies of Concussion
		7.7 Simulation of Concussions
		7.8 Pathophysiology of Clinical Symptoms
		7.9 Aims of Prophylaxis for Concussions
		7.10 Prophylaxis of Concussions
Part III: ACL Injury: Injury Mechanism, Prevention Programs, and Their Usefulness
	Chapter 8: Video Analysis of ACL Injuries in Sports
		8.1 Injury Causation in Sports
		8.2 Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries
		8.3 Research Approaches to Investigate Injury Mechanisms
		8.4 The Importance of Video Analysis
		8.5 Video Analysis of ACL Injuries in Ball/Team Sports
		8.6 The Validity of Simple, Visual Inspection
		8.7 Development of a Model-Based Image-Matching (MBIM) Method for 3D Motion Reconstruction from Uncalibrated Camera Sequences
		8.8 Validation of the MBIM Method
		8.9 Application on ACL Injury Situations
		8.10 Limitations and Possibilities
	Chapter 9: Video Analysis of ACL Injury Mechanisms Using a Model-Based Image-Matching Technique
		9.1 Introduction
			9.1.1 Previously Proposed ACL Injury Mechanisms
			9.1.2 Research Approaches to Injury Mechanisms
			9.1.3 Development of Model-Based Image-Matching Technique
		9.2 Biomechanics in Non-contact ACL Injury
		9.3 Timing of Non-contact ACL Injury
		9.4 Mechanism for Non-contact ACL Injury
		9.5 The Role of the Hip in Preventing ACL Injury
		9.6 ACL Injury Prevention Based on the Proposed Mechanisms
	Chapter 10: Injury Rate of Soccer Players and the Efficacy of the FIFA 11 + Program
		10.1 Characteristics of Soccer Injury
			10.1.1 Injury Rate of Soccer Players
			10.1.2 Injury Rate of Junior Soccer Players
			10.1.3 Injury Rate of the Female Soccer Players
		10.2 Efficacy of the FIFA 11 + Program
			10.2.1 FIFA “The 11” and “11 +”
			10.2.2 Efficacy of the FIFA 11+ on Injury Risk
			10.2.3 Efficacy of the FIFA 11+ on Physical Performance
	Chapter 11: Biomechanical Studies on ACL Injury Risk Factor During Cutting; Utilizing the Point Cluster Technique
		11.1 Introduction
		11.2 Review of Previous Studies
		11.3 Gender Differences in Kinematics of Shuttle Run Cutting
		11.4 Gender Differences in the Capacity of Cutting Kinematics
		11.5 Conclusion
	Chapter 12: Biomechanical Risk Factors and Prevention of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury
		12.1 Introduction
		12.2 Biomechanical Risk Factors for ACL Injury
			12.2.1 Jump-Landing
			12.2.2 Cutting Maneuver
		12.3 ACL Injury Prevention Program
			12.3.1 Effects of the Prevention Program on ACL Injury Incidence Rate
			12.3.2 Effects of ACL Injury Prevention Programs on ACL Injury Risk Factors
				Cutting Maneuver
			12.3.3 Components of ACL Injury Prevention Programs
				Plyometric Training
				Balance Training
				Feedback Training
				Strength Training
		12.4 Discussion
		12.5 Conclusion
	Chapter 13: Risk Factor Analysis of Female Soccer Tournament Players
		13.1 Introduction
		13.2 2-D Video Analysis of ACL Injury Events
			13.2.1 Sagittal View Analysis During ACL Injury
			13.2.2 Coronal View Analysis During ACL Injury
		13.3 2-D Video Analysis for Screening ACL Injury Risk; Approach to Soccer Specific Landing
			13.3.1 Data Collection
			13.3.2 Video Editing and Analysis
			13.3.3 Statistical Analysis
			13.3.4 Results
			13.3.5 Discussion
		13.4 Conclusion
	Chapter 14: Prevention of Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injury
		14.1 ACL Injuries – Why We Need to Prevent Them
			14.1.1 Historical Background
			14.1.2 Physical Consequences of ACL Injury
		14.2 Common ACL Injury Pathomechanics and the Relative Distribution
			14.2.1 Introduction
			14.2.2 Pathomechanics Classifications
			14.2.3 Direct Contact Mechanism
			14.2.4 Indirect Contact Mechanism
			14.2.5 Noncontact Mechanism
			14.2.6 Distribution of ACL Injuries Based on a Pathomechanical Classifications
			14.2.7 Summary of Common ACL Injury Pathomechanics and the Relative Distribution
		14.3 ACL Injury Prevention Clinical Trials
			14.3.1 Introduction
			14.3.2 Literature Search Method
			14.3.3 Documented Clinical Trials from 1995 to 2012
				Hewett et al. (1999)
				Soderman et al. (2000)
				Heidt et al. (2000)
				Myklebust et al. (2003)
				Mandelbaum et al. (2005)
				Olsen et al. (2005)
				Petersen et al. (2005)
				Pfeiffer et al. (2006)
				Pasanen et al. (2008)
				Steffen et al. (2008a)
				Gilchrist et al. (2008)
				Kiani et al. (2010)
				LaBella et al. (2011)
				Walden et al. (2012)
			14.3.4 Summary of Prior ACL Injury Prevention Clinical Trials
		14.4 Biomechanical Alterations Achieved through Specific Neuromuscular Training Exercises
			14.4.1 Introduction
			14.4.2 Strengthening Exercise
			14.4.3 Plyometric Exercise
			14.4.4 Proximal Control Exercise
			14.4.5 Balance and Postural Stability Exercise
			14.4.6 Summary of Biomechanical Alterations Achieved through Specific Neuromuscular Training Exercises
		14.5 Future Directions of ACL Injury Research
			14.5.1 Identification of At-Risk Athletes
			14.5.2 Clinical Feasibility of Neuromuscular Training Intervention
	Chapter 15: Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Prevention in Female Adolescents
		15.1 Introduction
		15.2 Changes in ACL Injury Risk Factors in Female Adolescents
			15.2.1 Knee Valgus
			15.2.2 Knee Flexion
			15.2.3 ACL Injury Risk
		15.3 Effect of Injury Prevention Training on Lower Extremity Kinematics
		15.4 Effect of Injury Prevention Training on Incidence of ACL Injury
		15.5 Future Directions
	Chapter 16: FIFA 11+ Injury Prevention in Amateur Football from Development to Worldwide Dissemination
		16.1 Introduction
		16.2 Development of Injury Prevention Programmes
		16.3 Development of a Dissemination Strategy
		16.4 Worldwide Dissemination of “FIFA 11+”
		16.5 Lessons Learned
		16.6 Conclusions and Future Directions
	Chapter 17: Influence of Changing Direction on the Center of Gravity and Knee Joint Angle in Rugby Players
		17.1 Introduction
		17.2 Purpose
		17.3 Method
			17.3.1 Subjects
			17.3.2 Motion Task
			17.3.3 Measurement of Motions
			17.3.4 Analysis
			17.3.5 Analysis Items
			17.3.6 Statistical Processing
		17.4 Results
			17.4.1 Knee Flexion Angle
			17.4.2 CG (Backward Position)
			17.4.3 CG (Height)
			17.4.4 Abduction Angle of Knee Joint
		17.5 Discussion
		17.6 Conclusion
	Chapter 18: Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Prevention in Female Lacrosse Players Based on an Examination of Knee and Hip Joint Mechanics During Drop Vertical Jumps Performed While Holding a Lacrosse Stick
		18.1 Introduction
		18.2 Materials and Methods
			18.2.1 Subjects
			18.2.2 Test Protocol
			18.2.3 Data Collection
			18.2.4 Kinematic, Kinetic and Data Analysis
		18.3 Results
		18.4 Discussion
		18.5 Conclusion
	Chapter 19: ACL Injury Mechanism in Badminton: Survey of Injury Situation and Motion Analysis Study
		19.1 Introduction
		19.2 Survey of ACL Injury
			19.2.1 Materials and Methods
			19.2.2 Results
		19.3 Motion Analysis
			19.3.1 Materials and Methods
			19.3.2 Results
		19.4 Conclusion
Part IV: ACL Injury: Post-operative Rehabilitation, Recovery of Function, and Tendon Regeneration
	Chapter 20: Functional Hop Tests Contribute to Safe Return to Sports After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction
		20.1 Introduction
		20.2 Materials and Methods
			20.2.1 Subjects
			20.2.2 Rehabilitation
			20.2.3 Self-Report Measures
			20.2.4 Hop Test Procedure
			20.2.5 Isokinetic Strength Evaluation
			20.2.6 Data Analysis
		20.3 Results
			20.3.1 Self-Report Measures
			20.3.2 Hop Tests
			20.3.3 Isokinetic Strength
			20.3.4 Relationship Between Hop Test Scores and Other Measurements
		20.4 Discussion
		20.5 Conclusion
	Chapter 21: Biomechanical Adaptations in Subjects After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Preventing Secondary Injury
		21.1 Introduction
		21.2 Study Selection
		21.3 Tasks to Identify Biomechanical Adaptations After ACL Reconstruction
		21.4 Kinematics and Kinetics Representing Biomechanical Adaptations
		21.5 Current Views in ACL-Reconstructed Subjects
		21.6 Limitations
	Chapter 22: Morphology and Function of the Semitendinosus Muscle-Tendon Complex After Harvesting Its Tendon for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction
		22.1 Introduction
		22.2 Morphology of the Semitendinosus Muscle-Tendon Complex After Harvesting Its Tendon
		22.3 Relationship Between Knee Flexion Strength and Morphology of the Semitendinosus Muscle-Tendon Complex After Harvesting Its Tendon
		22.4 Function of the Semitendinosus Muscle-Tendon Complex After Harvesting Its Tendon
		22.5 Conclusion
Part V: Muscle Functions, Occurrence Mechanisms, and Program to Prevent Strain in the Hamstring Muscles
	Chapter 23: Functional Differences Among Hamstring Muscles in Hip Extension and Knee Flexion Exercises
		23.1 Introduction
		23.2 Morphology and Function of the Hamstring Muscles
		23.3 Function of the Hamstring Muscles at the Hip and Knee Joints
			23.3.1 Hip Extension
			23.3.2 Knee Flexion
		23.4 Perspective
	Chapter 24: Anatomical and Functional Differences of Hamstrings
		24.1 Introduction
		24.2 Materials and Methods
			24.2.1 In-Vitro Anatomical Study
			24.2.2 In-Vivo Clinical Study
		24.3 Results
			24.3.1 In-vitro Anatomical Study
			24.3.2 In-vivo Clinical Study
		24.4 Discussion
	Chapter 25: Differences in Activation Patterns of the Hamstring Muscles During Sprinting
		25.1 Introduction
		25.2 Activation Patterns of the Hamstring Muscles During Sprinting
			25.2.1 Function of the Hamstring Muscles During Sprinting
			25.2.2 Activation Characteristics of the Lateral Versus. Medial Hamstring Muscles During Sprinting
			25.2.3 Changes in the Activity of the Hamstring Muscles with Increasing Running Speed
		25.3 Insight into the Mechanism of Hamstring Strain Injuries During Sprinting
			25.3.1 Mechanism of Hamstring Strain Injuries During Sprinting
			25.3.2 Relation to the Location of the Hamstring Strain Injury
		25.4 Conclusion
	Chapter 26: The Relationship Between Eccentric Exercise and Muscle Damage in Hamstring Muscles
		26.1 Introduction
		26.2 Activation Patterns of Hamstring Muscles During Eccentric Knee Flexion Exercises and the Differences in the Damage After Exercise
		26.3 Activation Patterns of Hamstring Muscles During Eccentric Hip Extension Exercises and Differences in the Damage After Exercise
	Chapter 27: Risk Factors and Prevention of Hamstring Strain
		27.1 Introduction
		27.2 Risk Factors
			27.2.1 Anatomy
			27.2.2 Hamstring Muscle Strength
			27.2.3 Fatigue
			27.2.4 Flexibility
			27.2.5 Age
			27.2.6 Previous Injury
		27.3 Prevention
		27.4 Conclusion
Part VI: Function in Arches of the Feet and Occurrence Mechanisms of Foot Disorders, Characteristics, and Their Prevention
	Chapter 28: Kinematics of the Foot and Ankle
		28.1 Introduction
		28.2 Foot Kinematics
		28.3 Ankle Kinematics
	Chapter 29: Biomechanical Analysis of the Effects of Footwear
		29.1 Introduction
		29.2 Changes in Lower Extremity Kinematics During Running
			29.2.1 A New Approach for Analyzing Foot and Ankle Kinematics with Footwear
			29.2.2 Foot Arch
			29.2.3 Talocrural and Subtalar Joints
	Chapter 30: Risk Factors and Mechanisms of Fifth Metatarsal Stress Fracture
		30.1 Introduction
		30.2 Anatomy
		30.3 Blood Supply
		30.4 Classification, Mechanism, and Treatment
			30.4.1 Tuberosity Avulsion Fracture (Zone I)
			30.4.2 Jones Fracture (Zone II)
			30.4.3 Proximal Diaphyseal Stress Fracture (Zone III)
		30.5 Risk Factors
		30.6 The Stress on the Lateral Part of the Foot
Part VII: Lumbar Disorder and an Approach for Its Prevention
	Chapter 31: Low Back Disorders Among Athletes and Its Prevention
		31.1 Introduction
		31.2 The Pathomechanisms of LBP (Fig. 31.1)
			31.2.1 Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Disorders/Disc Herniation
			31.2.2 Extension Type Low Back Disorders
			31.2.3 Disorders of Muscle, Fascia, and Muscle Insertion
			31.2.4 Sacroiliac Joint Disorders
		31.3 Treatment and Prevention
	Chapter 32: The Epidemiology of Low Back Disorders in Athletes
		32.1 Introduction
		32.2 The Relationships Between Sports Activities and Low Back Disorders
		32.3 Low Back Disorders of Top Athletes
		32.4 The Relationships Between Type of Sport, Position, and Low Back Disorders
		32.5 Conclusions
	Chapter 33: The Prevention of Low Back Disorders in Divers
		33.1 Introduction
		33.2 Second Section: The LBP Incidence Rate in Japanese Elite Junior Divers (First Step)
			33.2.1 Site of Pain in Training Camp
			33.2.2 Dimension of LBP
			33.2.3 Direction of Motion with LBP
			33.2.4 The Occurrence Situation of LBP
		33.3 Third Section: Critical Factors for the Prevention of Low Back Pain in Elite Junior Divers (Second Step)
			33.3.1 Comparison of the LBP and No-LBP Groups
			33.3.2 Factors Associated with LBP
			33.3.3 Summary
		33.4 Fourth Section: Entry Phase Alignment in Men’s Backward Dive Pike (201B) from 3 m Springboard Dives (Second Step)
			33.4.1 Shoulder Joint Angle and Trunk Angle at the Entry Phase
			33.4.2 Comparison of Each Angle at the Entry Phase in the LBP Group and No-LBP Group
			33.4.3 Summary
	Chapter 34: Electromyographic Analysis of Deep Trunk Muscles During Sports Activities
		34.1 Introduction
		34.2 Intramuscular EMG Setup
		34.3 EMG Analysis of Trunk Mucles During Lumbar Stabilization Exercises
			34.3.1 The Activity of the Trunk Muscles During Various Lumbar Stabilization Exercises
			34.3.2 Changes in Trunk Muscle Activity by Lifting of the Extremities During Lumbar Stabilization Exercise
			34.3.3 Trunk Muscle Activity During Lumbar Stabilization Exercises on Stable and Unstable Surfaces
		34.4 EMG Analysis of Trunk Muscles During Sports Activities
			34.4.1 Abdominal Muscle Activity During Jumping
			34.4.2 Abdominal Muscle Activity During Volleyball Block Jump
			34.4.3 Trunk Muscle Activity During a Handstand Posture
Document Text Contents
Page 1

Sports Injuries
and Prevention

Kazuyuki Kanosue Editor in Chief

Tetsuya Ogawa
Mako Fukano
Toru Fukubayashi Editors

Page 2

Sports Injuries and Prevention

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15 Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Prevention in Female Adolescents

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Sacroiliac joint disorders , 371
Safe administration , 83
Safe landings , 160
Safety guidance of Judo , 81
Sagittal , 262
Sagittal view analysis , 155–156
Sarcomere , 283
SCAT3 , 88
School sports club activities , 16
School term , 20
Score , 123
Screening risk factors , 154
Screening to prevent ACL injury in female

lacrosse players , 229
Scrum , 64
Second impact syndrome (SIS) , 92
Second injury , 254
Semimembranosus (SM) , 279, 290, 311, 321
Semitendinosus (ST) , 289, 301, 311, 315
Semitendinosus (ST) tendon , 245, 268
Senior high school students , 19
Sensorimotor system , 179
Severe head and neck injury(ies) , 16, 24
Severity of the injury , 17
Sex differences , 32, 168
Shortening , 296
Shoulder dislocation , 28
Shuttle run cutting , 133
Side-step , 233
Signal intensity (SI) , 315
Simple visual inspection , 111
Single-leg-landing , 233, 237
SIS. See Second impact syndrome (SIS)
Smaller knee fl exion angle , 227
Small knee fl exion angle during landing , 228
Soccer , 8, 23, 26, 33
Soccer injuries , 122
Soft landing , 177
Spear tackle , 65
Specifi c neuromuscular training exercises , 180
Specifi c risk factor , 332
Spinal instability , 376
Spondylolysis , 375, 378
Sports Injury Surveillance system , 15, 34
Sports physiotherapists , 205
Sports-related injuries , 15, 34
Sports Safety Association of Japan , 3
Sprain , 6
Sprinting , 300, 305, 325
ST. See Semitendinosus (ST)
Stabilization exercises , 367
Stiff-leg deadlift , 320

Strain on the fi fth metatarsal , 361
Strength defi cits in deep knee fl exion , 268
Strengthening exercise , 175–176
Strength training , 147–148
The stress on the lateral part of the foot , 361
Style of performance , 380
Subtalar , 343, 352
Swimmers , 379
Swimming , 13

T2 , 315
Tackling , 56
Talocrural , 343, 352
Tendon-like structure , 269
Tendons , 282
Tennis , 13
3D optical motion analysis system , 224
3D reconstruction of injury situations , 101
Throwing , 81
Throwing techniques , 83
Tibial rotation , 347
Timing of ACL injury , 116
Title IX of The Educational

Assistance Act , 164
Track and fi eld , 13
Training , 41
Trauma , 62
Traumatic head injuries , 77
Traumatic neck injuries , 77
Trunk angle , 158
Trunk displacements , 178
Tuberosity avulsion fracture , 356–357
Tuck and scissor jumps , 177
2-dimensional (2-D) , 154
2-D video analysis , 161
Two-legged DVJ , 223
Type of injury , 22
Type of sport , 378, 380

Ukemi (break-fall) , 83
Uninjured , 157
Unipennate muscles , 293, 295
Upper respiratory tract infection , 45

Valgus knee angle , 222
Valgus loading , 110, 111, 117
Validation of the MBIM method , 104


Page 405


The validity of simple, visual
inspection , 100

2010 Vancouver Olympics , 40
Varus hindfoot , 359
Verbal feedback , 177
Video analysis , 111
Volleyball , 12, 32
Volume , 295

Warm-up , 201
Warm-up program , 127

Workshop , 202
Worldwide dissemination , 203

XXX London 2012 , 39

Yearly incidence rate, 8
Youth , 376
Youth Olympic Games (YOG) , 47
Youth soccer players , 123


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