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TitleStrategies to Mitigate the Impacts of Chloride Deicers
File Size2.6 MB
Total Pages108
Table of Contents
                            NCHRP Synthesis 449—Strategies to Mitigate the Impacts of Chloride Roadway Deicers on the Natural Environment
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Project Description
Report Web Page
Front Matter
	Transportation Research Board 2013 Executive Committee
	National Cooperative Highway Research Program
	The National Academies
	NCHRP Committee for Project 20-05
	CHAPTER ONE—Introduction
		Report Structure
	CHAPTER TWO—Background
		Environments at Risk
		Mitigation Techniques
	CHAPTER THREE—Proactive Mitigation Strategies
		Salt Management Plans
		Staff Training
		Monitoring and Record Keeping
		Anti-icing, Deicing, and Pre-wetting Practices
		Weather Forecasting and Road Weather Information Systems
		Vehicle-Mounted Spreaders
		Roadway and Pavement Design
		Vegetation Management
		Innovative Snow Fences
		Design and Operations of Road Maintenance Yards
	CHAPTER FOUR—Reactive Mitigation Strategies
		General Considerations
		Infiltration Trenches and Basins
		Detention, Retention, and Evaporation Ponds
		Wetlands and Shallow Marshes
		Vegetated Swales and Filter Strips
		Overview of Reactive Strategies
	CHAPTER FIVE—New and Emerging Technologies
		Synchronizing Vehicle Location and Other Sensor Technologies
		Maintenance Decisions Support System
		Fixed Automated Spray Technology
		Thermal Deicing Methods
	CHAPTER SIX—Conclusions
		Suggestions for Future Research
	APPENDIX A—Survey and Responses
		Survey Questionnaire
		Summary of Survey Results
	APPENDIX B—Case Examples
		Closed Loop Controllers
		Vegetation Management
		Snow Disposal and Melting
		Making Salt Brine from Recycled Vehicle Wash Bay Water
		Case Example Questionnaire

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