Download Sussman, The Myth of Race PDF

TitleSussman, The Myth of Race
File Size1.4 MB
Total Pages385
Table of Contents
                            Contents
List of Abbreviations
Introduction
Chapter 1. Early Racism in Western Europe
Chapter 2. The Birth of Eugenics
Chapter 3. The Merging of Polygenics and Eugenics
Chapter 4. Eugenics and the Nazis
Chapter 5. The Antidote: Boas and the Anthropological Concept of Culture
Chapter 6. Physical Anthropology in the Early Twentieth Century
Chapter 7. The Downfall of Eugenics
Chapter 8. The Beginnings of Modern Scientific Racism
Chapter 9. The Pioneer Fund, 1970s–1990s
Chapter 10. The Pioneer Fund in the Twenty-First Century
Chapter 11. Modern Racism and Anti-Immigration Policies
Conclusion
Appendix A: The Eugenics Movement, 1890s– 1940s
Appendix B: The Pioneer Fund
References
Acknowledgments
Index
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 2

TH E MY TH OF R ACE

Page 192

Physical Anthropology in the Early Twentieth Century 181

friends, agreed to coordinate their efforts in the interest of science in the
future, as they had done in the past (Spiro 2009).

This appointment fueled the fi re of the antagonism between Grant and
Boas. In 1918, Merriam announced at a meeting of the Galton Society
that American anthropologists should stop wasting their time on the cul-
tural practices of American Indians and devote their time to the more rel-
evant problems of the day, such as the racial traits of new immigrants
(Gregory 1919). When the or ga niz ing meeting for the Division of An-
thropology and Psychology was held in 1919, Boas was not invited and
cultural anthropology was not represented. Boas and his new ally Hrdlička
wrote an open letter to the NRC in the AA demanding that cultural an-
thropology be represented in the division, stating: “The forces which
determine the development of human types are to a very large extent
cultural forces” (Boas, Hrdlička, and Tozzer 1919). The Grantians re-
sponded with letters of their own urging Merriam to exclude Boas and his
followers.

The rift between the two anthropological camps widened, with the
Grantian biological determinists insisting that the Boasian concept of cul-
ture was not true science. Lowie, an immigrant Jewish student of Boas, wrote
that anthropology “is divided by a far- reaching difference as to principles
and ideals . . . I feel that no scientifi c bond unites me with our opponents.”
Like Boas, he despised Grant, labeling him as arrogant and comparing him
to a sadistic Prus sian nobleman who “gloats over the vision of big blond
princes leading little brunet Mediterraneans to be remorselessly butchered”
(quoted in Spiro 2009, 316). Given the ideological differences between the
two groups and the racism of the eugenicist physical anthropologists,
Lowie believed that it was beginning to be a disgrace to be classed as an
anthropologist.

However, because the only offi cial professional or ga ni za tion in anthro-
pology was the American Association of Anthropologists, after a year of
infi ghting, the NRC decided to have the AAA elect six representatives to
its Anthropology and Psychology Division. This was a major setback for
Grant and his followers. The professionalization of the discipline by Boas
and his followers had paid off, and fi ve of the six members were, more or
less, Boasians, including Boas and Kroeber. Only one, Clark Wissler, was
from the aristocratic, self- appointed Galton Society (Barkan 1992).

Six weeks later, Boas (1919), likely not thinking of the professional
ramifi cations, published a short, three- paragraph letter in the magazine
The Nation claiming that at least four (unnamed) anthropologists had

Page 193

TH E MY TH OF R AC E182

served as spies for the U.S. government during the war under the guise of
doing research and that in doing so, they were prostituting science. Boas
believed that anthropologists who spied for their country betrayed scien-
tifi c ethics and damaged the credibility of anthropological research. Fur-
thermore, he believed that when scientists used their research as a cover
for po liti cal spying, they forfeited their rights as scientists. He worried
that other countries would look upon visiting foreign investigators with
mistrust and suspect them of sinister motives, and that such action had
raised new barriers against the development of international friendly co-
operation. These were not frivolous concerns, and the subject of anthro-
pologists acting as spies is a serious ethical issue that is still being debated
within the fi eld (Price 2000; Gledhill 2008; Barker 2010).

In his letter, Boas also implied that President Wilson was a liar and a
hypocrite and that democracy in America was a fi ction. Boas had played
into the hands of Grant and his colleagues, putting his infl uence in the
AAA and in the NRC in jeopardy. Ten days after the letter was published,
at the annual meeting of the AAA, Boas was expelled from the association’s
council by a vote of twenty to ten and forced to resign from the NRC’s Di-
vision of Anthropology and Psychology. An infuriated Lowie viewed this
as a degrading spectacle, in which “the foremost representative of our sci-
ence” was scorned by men “who are anthropologists only by courtesy”
(Lowie letter to Wissler, 1920, quoted in Spiro 2009, 317). A few weeks
later, Pliny Goddard, a colleague and strong supporter of Boas, was re-
moved as editor of the AA. The reign of Boas in these important profes-
sional anthropology organizations appeared to be over. Referring to
Stocking’s (1968) analysis of these incidents, Spiro (2009, 217) states that
the censure of Boas “was the result of numerous schisms within American
anthropology, but at its heart it refl ected years of friction between aristo-
cratic WASPs (mainly physical anthropologists) anxious to stem the rising
tide of color and immigrant Jews (mainly cultural anthropologists) seek-
ing to impede the ascent of scientifi c racism.”

A number of Boasians, including Lowie, wanted to leave the AAA and
start a new or ga ni za tion, but Boas and Kroeber insisted that they stay and
continue their fi ght from within the association (and we shall see that this
strategy paid off in the end). On the other hand, the eugenicists were de-
lighted. Osborn gloated, in a 1920 letter to the head of the Smithsonian,
C. D. Walcott, that Boas “now occupies a comparatively obscure and un-
infl uential position” and that they would never hear from Franz Boas
again (quoted in Spiro 2009, 318). But the Grantians were not satisfi ed

Page 384

Index 373

Thomas, William I., 170– 173
Thompson, H. Keith, 224
Thorndike, E. L., 70, 175
Thunderbolt, 243
Thyssen, Fritz, 143
Tobacco Research Council, 254
Todd, T. W., 175
Trading with the Enemy (Higham), 141– 142
Training School for Feeble- Minded Girls and

Boys, 54
Traits, biological/ge ne tic, 4
Treatise of Human Nature (Hume), 26
Trevor, John B., Jr., 219– 221, 289, 291
Trevor, John B., Sr., 219– 220, 289
Trifkovic, Serge, 299
Trinkle, E. Lee, 78
Truman, Harry, 218
Truth Seeker, 223
Tucker, William H., 210, 213, 224, 228, 234,

245, 247, 251, 268, 277, 288
Twins, research on, 115, 128, 249– 254
Two Lectures on the Natural History

of the Caucasian and Negro Races (Nott),
32

Types of Mankind (Nott & Gliddon, eds.),
34– 35, 36, 41, 45, 62

UNESCO (United Nations Educational,
Scientifi c, and Cultural Or ga ni za tion), 1,
122, 207, 225– 226, 240

“unfi t”: eliminating, 50, 70, 80– 81, 108,
110, 112– 113, 117– 118, 121– 122, 136,
216– 217; negative eugenics approach to,
50; sterilization of, 54, 75– 81, 193, 216;
marriage laws and, 69; groups targeted as,
70– 72; identifying, 84; deportation of, 193

Union Bank of New York, 142– 143
Union Carbide, 143
Unitary character of intelligence, 53– 54, 83,

91– 92, 188– 189, 255, 256, 258, 270
United Jewish Appeal of Toronto, 29
United Kingdom, eugenics movement,

50– 51, 59, 61, 67
United Nations, United States membership,

220
United States: immigration policy, 38,

99– 106, 115, 178, 183, 220; eugenics

movement, 50– 58, 64– 65, 73, 107;
post– Civil War changes, 99– 100;
post– World War II changes, 100;
population demographics (1920s– 1940)s,
204; UN membership, 220

United States- Japan relations, 104
University of Southern Mississippi (USM),

243– 244, 245
University Professors for Academic Order,

244
USA PATRIOT Act, 286
U.S. En glish, 285, 288
U.S. Inc., 287, 299
U.S. News & World Report, 238
USSR, 220

Valle, Pedro del, 220
Vandervoort, Robert, 299
Van Wagenen, Bleecker, 59
VDARE.com, 292, 299
Vera Cruz, Alonso de la, 13
Verschuer, Otmar von, 117– 118, 126– 132,

190, 225, 249
Vinson, John, 283, 291
Virchow, Rudolf, 40, 148– 149, 150, 165,

170
Virginia: Sterilization Law, 68, 77– 81,

98– 99, 303; Racial Integrity Act, 72– 74,
98, 215; Bureau of Vital Statistics, 73;
marriage laws, 303

Virginia Education Fund, 219
Voluntary Sterilization Bonus Plan, 237
Voting Rights Act, 300

Wagner, Richard, 29, 38, 39– 40
Walcott, C. D., 182– 183
Wallace, Alfred Russel, 201
Wallace, George, 276
War criminals, 119, 125, 168, 220
Ward, Lester Frank, 44
Ward, Robert DeCourcy, 46, 100– 101, 102
Warren, C., 46
Washburn, S. L., 202
Washington, George, 215
Watson, John B., 187
Watson, Thomas J., 138, 140
Watts, Mary T., 71

Page 385

Index374

Wealth gap, 284
Weaver, Warren, 139
Webb, Sidney, 51, 59
Weber, Max, 162
Webster, Richard, 59
Weher, Michelle, 268
Weindling, Paul, 51, 108– 109, 111
Weinstein, A., 189
Weismann, August, 25, 43– 44, 69, 111– 112,

113, 115, 121, 132, 172, 302– 303
Weismann, Friedrich Leopolld August, 41
Weiss, S. F., 110, 119, 206
Weissberg, Robert, 280
Weizmann, F. N., 263, 265
Welch, William H., 65
Welfare Reform Act, 286
Wells, H. G., 51, 59
Western Destiny, 223, 242
Westing house, 143
Wetfi sh, Gene, 219
Weyher, Harry Frederick, Jr., 219, 221– 222,

224, 231, 234, 259, 268, 274, 290, 291,
300

White, Charles, 30
White America (Cox), 215, 217– 218, 219
Whitehead, Irving, 77– 78, 79– 80
White nationalists, 277, 299– 300
White separatists, 277
White supremacists, 277, 290– 291, 292
Whitley, Leon F., 109
Whitney, Glayde, 256– 258, 277

“Who Rules America?” (Pearce), 295
“Why Psychologists Should Learn Some

Anthropology” (Fish), 260
Wickliffe, Margaret, 210
Wilson, E. O., 171– 172, 261, 262
Wilson, Woodrow, 54, 60, 75, 180, 182,

183
Winter, Ludwig (pseud.). See Günther, Hans

Friedrich Karl
Wissler, Clark, 175, 176, 181, 183, 184
Wolff, Henry, 280– 281
Woodworth, Robert, 174
World Anti- Communist League, 244
World Federation for Mental health, 220
World Population Congress, 123, 134
Wrenn, Carter, 274
Wright, Sewell, 188, 202

Xenophobia, as human nature, 283

Yerkes, Robert M., 65, 70, 92, 93, 95– 96,
98, 101, 109, 175, 176, 177, 178, 183,
184, 185– 186, 269

Young, Kimball, 201

Zeitschrift für Ethnologie, 148
Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Anthropolo-

gie, 118– 119
Zenderland, Leila, 67, 84, 269– 270
Zola, Émile, 59
Zoological classifi cation system, 15– 16

Similer Documents