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TitleThe Gulag Archipelago
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Page 1

THE GULAG ARCHIPELAGO

Page 2

Also by Aleksandr I. Solzhenitsyn

The Nobel Lecture on Literature

August 1914

A Lenten Letter to Pimen, Patriarch of All Russia

Stories and Prose Poems

The Love Girl and the Innocent

The Cancer Ward

The First Circle

For the Good of the Cause
We Never Make Mistakes

One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich

Page 335

324 I THE G U LAG ARC HIP E LAG 0
for these awful crimes? Will not the reader's revolutionary con-
science prompt the answer? To be shot, of course. And that is
just what Krylenko did demand-for Samarin and Kuznetsov.

But while they were fussing around with these damned legal
formalities, and listening to too many long speeches from too
many bourgeois lawyers (speeches which "for technical reasons"
we will not cite here), it turned out that .capital punishment had
been ... abolished! What a fix! It just couldn't be! What had
happened? It developed that Dzerzhinsky had issued this order to
the Cheka (the Cheka, without capital punishment?). But had it
been extended to the tribunals by the Council of People's Com-
missars? Not yet. Krylenko cheered up. And he continued to de-
mand execution by shooting, on the following grounds:

"Even if we suppose that the consolidation of the Republic has
removed the immediacy of threat from such persons, it seems
nonetheless indubitable that in this period of creative effort . . .
a purge ... of the old turncoat leaders ... is required by revolu-
tionary necessity." And further: "Soviet power is proud of the
decree of the Cheka abolishing the death penalty." But this "still
does not force us to conclude that the question of the abolition of
capital punishment has been decided once and for all . . . for
the entire period of Soviet rule. "50

That was quite prophetic! Capital punishment would retum-
and very soon too! After all, what a long line still remained to
,be rubbed out! (Yes, including Krylenko too, and many of his
class brothers as well.)

And, indeed, the tribunal was submissive and sentenced
Samarin and Kuznetsov to be shot, but they did manage to tack
on a recommendation for clemency: to be imprisoned in a con-
centration camp until the final victory over world imperialism!
(They would still be sitting there today1) And as for "the best
that the clergy could produce"-his sentence was fifteen years,
commuted to five.

Other defendants as well were dragged into this trial in order
to add at least a little stWstance to the charges. Among them
were some monks and teachers of Zvenigorod, involved in the
Zvenigorod affair in the summer of 1918, but for some reason
not brought to trial for a year and a half (or they might have
been, but were now being tried again, since it was expedient).

so. Ibid., p. 81.

Page 336

The Law as a Child I 325
That summer some Soviet officials had called on Father Superior
Ion51 at the Zvenigorod monastery and ordered him ("Step
lively there!") to turn over to them the holy relics of St. Savva.
The officials not only smoked inside the church and evidently be-
hind the altar screen as well, and, of course,· refused to take off
their caps, but one of them took Savva's skull in his hands and be-
gan to spit into it, to demonstrate that its sanctity was an illusion.
And there were further acts of desecration. This led to the alarm
bell being sounded, a popular uprising, and the killing of one or
two of the officials. (The others denied having committed any
acts of desecration, including the spitting incident, and Krylenko
accepted their denials.) 52 Were these officials the ones on trial
now? No, the monks.

We beg the reader, throughout, to keep in mind: from 1918
on, our judicial custom determined that every Moscow trial,
except, of course, the unjust trial of the Chekists, was by no
means an isolated trial of an accidental. concatenation of cir-
cumstances which had converged by accident; it was a landmark
of judicial policy; it was a display-window model whose specifi-
cations determined what product was good for the provinces too;
it was a standard; it was like that one-and-only model solution
up front in the arithmetic book for the schoolchildren to follow
for themselves·.

Thus, when we say, "the trial of the churchmen," this must be
understood in the multiple plural ... "many trials." And, in fact,
the supreme accuser himself willingly explains: "Such trials have
rolled along through almost all the tribunals 0/ the Republic."
(What language!) They had taken place not long before in the
tribunals in North Dvina, Tver, and Ryazan; in Saratov, Kazan,
Ufa, Solvychegodsk, and Tsarevokokshaisk, trials were held of
the clergy, the choirs, and the active members of the congrega-

S1. Firgu£, a fonner guards officer of the Tsar's household cavalry, who
had "suddenly undergone a spiritual conversion, given all his goods to the
poor, and entered a monastery, but I do not in fact know whether he actually
did distribute his goods to the poor." Yes, and if one admits the possibility of
spiritual conversion, what then remains of class theory?

S2 .. ·But which' of us doesn't remember similar scenes? My first memory is
of an event that took place when I was, probably, three or four: The peaked-
heads (as they called the Chekists in their·bigh-peaked Bildenny caps) invaded
a Kislovodsk church, sliced· through the dumbstruck crowd-.of worshipers, and,
in their pointed caps, went straight through the .. altar -sereen to. the altar and
stopped the service.

Page 670

Vaneyev, 133
Varentsov, Ivan N., 43
VAS (Dissemination of Anti-Soviet

Sentiments),284
Vasilyev, 150n
Vasilyev-Yuzhin, Mikhail I., 282,

373n, 635
VAT (Praise of American Tech-

nology),91
Vavilov, Nikolai I., SO, 445-46, 635

disciples arrested, 90
VChK see Cheka
Velichko, A. F., 44, 375
Veniamin, Metropolitan, 36, 345,346,

349-50, 367
Petrograd church trial, 36, 350-52,

458n
Vereshchagin, Vasily V., 211n, 635
Verkhne-Uralsk: prison, 271n, 465,

466, 475, 479
Verkhtrib see Supreme Tribunal
vertukhai, 203
Vikzhel (All-Russian Executive

Committee of Railroad Workers
Union), 28, 641

Vinogradsky, N. N., 330
Vitkovsky, Dmitri P., xi, xii, 98, 242n
Vladimir: prison, 125n, 475, 479-83

passim
Vladimirescu, 608-10
Vlasov, Andrei A., 251-53, 257n, 258,

635; see also Vlasov men
Vlasov, Vasily G., 14, 152,421-31

passim, 449-55 passim, 557
Vlasova, Zoya, 431n
Vlasov men, 85, 223, 243, 246, 251,

253n, 255-63 passim; see also
Vlasov, Andrei A.

Vogt, 599-600
Voikov, Pyotr L., 41-42, 635
VOKhR (Militarized Guard Service),

157,249
Volga Canal, project, 59, 285
Volkonskaya, Zinaida, 182
Volkopyalov, 149n, 154
Vologda: prison, 513, 534, 542, 569
Voloshin, Maksimilian A., 34, 635
Vorkuta: camp and projects, 82n-83n,

571, 578
Vorobyev, I. Y., 155
Vorobyev, N. M., 10
Voroshilov, Kliment Y., 124n, 454,

636
Voskoboinikov, K. P., 254n, 257n
Vostrikov, Andrei I., 5-6
VSNKh see Supreme Council of the

Economy

INDEX 659

VTsIK see All-Russian Central
Executive Committee

Vul, 282
Vyazemskaya, Princess, 40
Vysheslavtsev, Boris P., 372, 636
Vyshinsky, Andrei Y., xii, 34, 62,

100-01, 139, 271n, 282-83,
288n-289n, 358, 373, 376, 371,
378, 384, 418, 459n, 553, 636

Vyushkov, 163-64

Warsaw: World War II, 257n
Waschkau, GUnther, 291n
White Russians see Civil War, emigres
White Sea Canal, project, xii, 42, 157
Workers' and Peasants' Inspection

see RKI
Working Peasants Party (TKP), 386,

387
trial, 49-50, 57, 331, 400

World War I, 31, 219n, 242, 253n,
272, 343, 356-57

World War II, 63, 71, 81, 240,
252n-253n, 259n-260n

anti-Soviet fighting forces with
Wehrmacht, 253n-254n, 254-55,
257n, 258, 260, 262n; emigres,
254n, 257n; Estonians, Lithuanians,
and Ukrainians, 253n, 262n;
"Hiwi," 246, 638; Krasnov and
Krasnov Cossacks, 85, 246, 254n,
259, 262n, 263, 627; Moslems,
87, 257n, 262n; prisoners of war
as spies, 220, 221-22, 246-47,
247-48,260,261; Rodionovites,
254n, 257n; "Russian Liberation
Army" (ROA), 251, 253, 257;
Tatars, 84, 253n, 638; Vlasov and
Vlasov men, 85, 223, 243, 246,
251-53, 255-63 passim, 635

arrests, 24-25, 60, 61, 78-86, 238,
270-71, 441, 507, 566, 579, 602;
emigres, 63, 84-85, 238, 262-66
passim, 566, 602; military, 79,80,
81, 110,238; military-prisoners
of war, 25, 81, 82-83, 142, 164,
221n, 237-51 passim, 255-56,
259-60, 260-61, 602

criminals released for service, 81
deserters, 250-51
ending of, 235-36, 270-71
internees in Sweden, 83
repatriation of Soviets by Allies,

82n, 85, 249, 259-60
Resistance and partisans, 82,

244-45, 257n, 261, 263

Page 671

660 INDEX

World War II (confd)
war criminals, 84, 175, 176-77
Yalta Conference, 185,259
see also prisoners of war (World

War II); individual countries
Wrangel, Pyotr N., 137, 436, 636

Yagoda, Genrikh G., 34, 96, 157, 173,
314,374,375,410-11,415,438,
465, 636

Yakubovich, 402n
Yakubovich, Mikhail P., 49, 370, 400,

401-07,418
Yakubovich, Pyotr F., 636

In the World of Outcasts, 495n,
499, 500n, 561n, 577

Yakulov, 312, 316
Yakuts,51
Yalta Conference, 185, 259
Yaroshenko, Nikolai A., 491, 636
Yaroslavl: prison, 469, 473, 477, 478,

480
Yasevich, Konstantin K., 267-68, 602
Yefimov, 362
Yefremov, Sergei A., 51
Yegorov, 350
Yegorov, P. V., 310-11
Yenukidze, Avel S., 412, 636
Yermilov, Vladimir V., 525, 636
Yesenin, Sergei A., 604, 636
Yezepov, I. I., 134, 135, 142, 144

Yezhov, Nikolai 1.,76, 157, 427n,
438, 479, 636

Yudenich, Nadezhda, 74
Yudenich, Nikolai N., 213, 332, 636
Yugoslavia: World War II, 85, 219
Yurovsky, L. N., 50
Yuzhakov, 74

Zabolovsky,71
Zalygin, Sergei P., 56n, 636
Zamyatin, Yevgeny I., 46, 215, 636
Zaozerov,425
Zaozersky, A. N., 347
Zapadny, 469
Zasulich, Vera I., 281, 287, 636
Zavalishin, Dmitri I., 132, 636
zeks see prisoners
Zeldovich, Vladimir B., 483
Zelensky, 132
Zenyuk,338
Zhdanov, Andrei A., 157, 441, 447,

636
Zhebrak, Anton R., 599, 636
Zheleznov, Foma F., 137
Zhelyabov, Andrei I., 287, 636
Zhilenkov, G. N., 253n
Zhukov, Georgi K., 252n, 636
Zinoviev (Apfelbaum), Grigory Y.,

299, 300n, 397, 410, 411,412,
413, 636

Zverev, G. A., 258n

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