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TitleThe HACCP Food Safety Training Manual
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Table of Contents
                            The HACCP Food Safety Training Manual
	Contents
	ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
	Preface
		THE HACCP PHILOSOPHY
		OUR MISSION
		HACCP PRETEST
		FOOD SAFETY VS. SANITATION
		STAR KNOWLEDGE: ACTIVE MANAGERIAL CONTROL
	HACCP STAR POINT 1
		DEVELOPING PREREQUISITE PROGRAMS
		STAR KNOWLEDGE EXERCISE: EQUIPMENT
		UNDERSTANDING FOOD SAFETY
		STAR KNOWLEDGE EXERCISE: STORAGE SOP
		COMMON FOODBORNE ILLNESSES
		STAR KNOWLEDGE EXERCISE: FOODBORNE ILLNESSES AND ALLERGENS
		INTERNATIONAL FOOD SAFETY ICONS
		FOOD SAFETY MATCH GAME
		RESPONSIBILITES RELATED TO FOOD SAFETY
		STAR KNOWLEDGE EXERCISE: WASHING HANDS SOP
		STAR KNOWLEDGE EXERCISE: USING SUITABLE UTENSILS WHEN HANDLING RTE FOODS SOP
		STAR KNOWLEDGE EXERCISE: PERSONAL HYGIENE SOP
		STAR KNOWLEDGE EXERCISE: WASHING FRUITS AND VEGETABLES SOP
		STAR KNOWLEDGE EXERCISE: TIME-/DATE-MARKING FOOD SOP
		STAR KNOWLEDGE EXERCISE: COOKING SOP
		STAR KNOWLEDGE EXERCISE: HOLDING HOT AND COLD PHF/TCS FOODS SOP
		STAR KNOWLEDGE EXERCISE: COOLING FOOD SOP
		STAR KNOWLEDGE EXERCISE: REHEATING FOOD SOP
		STAR KNOWLEDGE EXERCISE: CLEANING AND SANITIZING SOP
		PEST CONTROL
		SERVING FOOD AND OPERATING SELF-SERVICE BARS
		STAR KNOWLEDGE EXERCISE: SERVING FOOD SOP
		STAR KNOWLEDGE EXERCISE: SELF-SERVICE AREAS SOP
		PREREQUISITE PROGRAMS STAR CONCLUSION
		ARE YOU A FOOD SAFETY “SUPERSTAR”?
		SUMMARY OF FOOD SAFETY STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES (SOPs)
	HACCP STAR POINT 2
		FEDERAL ACTION TAKEN TO PROTECT OUR FOOD
		REALITY CHECK
		STAR KNOWLEDGE EXERCISE: REALITY CHECK
		TRAINING EMPLOYEES IN FOOD DEFENSE
		ARE YOU A FOOD DEFENSE “SUPERSTAR”?
	HACCP STAR POINT 3
		HACCP INTRODUCTION
		THE HACCP PHILOSOPHY
		PRINCIPLE 1: CONDUCT A HAZARD ANALYSIS
		STAR KNOWLEDGE EXERCISE: BIOLOGICAL CONTAMINATION—KEVIN’S STORY
		STAR KNOWLEDGE EXERCISE: ANALYZE CUSTOMERS
		STAR KNOWLEDGE EXERCISE: EVALUATE YOUR MENU
		STAR KNOWLEDGE EXERCISE: PHF/TCS
		STAR KNOWLEDGE EXERCISE: FLOW-OF-FOOD ACTIVITY
		STAR KNOWLEDGE EXERCISE: MENU ITEM CATEGORIES
		STAR KNOWLEDGE EXERCISE: HAZARD ANALYSIS
		PRINCIPLE 2: DETERMINE CRITICAL CONTROL POINTS
		STAR KNOWLEDGE EXERCISE: CRITICAL CONTROL POINTS
		STAR KNOWLEDGE EXERCISE: HACCP PRINCIPLES 1 AND 2
	HACCP STAR POINT 4
		PRINCIPLE 3: ESTABLISH CRITICAL LIMITS
		STAR KNOWLEDGE EXERCISE: CRITICAL LIMITS
		PRINCIPLE 4: ESTABLISH MONITORING PROCEDURES
		STAR KNOWLEDGE EXERCISE: MONITORING
		PRINCIPLE 5: IDENTIFY CORRECTIVE ACTIONS
		STAR KNOWLEDGE EXERCISE: CORRECTIVE ACTION
		STAR KNOWLEDGE EXERCISE: CORRECTIVE ACTION
		STAR KNOWLEDGE EXERCISE: HACCP PRINCIPLE CHECK
	HACCP STAR POINT 5
		PRINCIPLE 6: VERIFY THAT THE HACCP SYSTEM WORKS
		STAR KNOWLEDGE EXERCISE: VERIFICATION SCENARIOS
		PRINCIPLE 7: RECORD KEEPING AND DOCUMENTATION
		STAR KNOWLEDGE EXERCISE: VERIFICATION AND EVALUATION OF HACCP PLAN
		HACCP PRINCIPLES MATCH GAME
		ARE YOU A HACCP “SUPERSTAR”?
	Appendix
		ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ON BSE, vCJD, AND AVIAN INFLUENZA
	Glossary
	Resources
	Index
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

The HACCP Food
Safety Training

Manual

Tara Paster

John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Page 176

152 HACCP Star Point 3

Annex 4, Table 1. Continued

Hazard Associated Foods Control Measures

Staphylococcus aureus RTE PHF foods touched by bare hands Cooling, cold holding, hot holding, no
(preformed heat stable toxin) after cooking and further time/ bare hand contact with RTE food,

temperature abused handwashing

Vibrio spp. Seafood, shellfish Cooking, approved source, prevention
of cross-contamination, cold holding

Parasites

Anisakis simplex Various fish (cod, haddock, fluke, pacific Cooking, freezing
salmon, herring, flounder, monkfish)

Taenia spp. Beef and pork Cooking

Trichinella spiralis Pork, bear, and seal meat Cooking

Viruses

Hepatitis A and E Shellfish, any food contaminated by Approved source, no bare hand contact
infected worker via fecal-oral route with RTE food, minimizing bare hand

contact with foods not RTE, employee
health policy, handwashing

Other Viruses (Rotavirus, Norovirus, Any food contaminated by infected No bare hand contact with RTE food,
Reovirus) worker via fecal-oral route minimizing bare hand contact with

foods not RTE, employee health policy,
handwashing

RTE = ready- to-eat
PHF = potentially hazardous food (time/temperature control for safety food)
Source: 2005 FDA code http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~acrobat/fc05-a4.pdf, page 481.

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� CHEMICAL HAZARDS

Chemical hazards may also cause foodborne illness. Chemical hazards may occur
naturally or may be introduced during any stage of food production. Dangerous,
naturally occurring chemicals can be found in some species of fish (scombroid,
ciguatera, puffer fish) or shellfish (molluscan, lobsters, red rock crabs), some plant
foods (red kidney beans), or mushrooms, and allergens. Allergens can be biolog-
ical or chemical hazards and were previously discussed in Star Point 1.

Some chemicals added to foods also make them unsafe. These include preserv-
atives (sulfites, sodium nitrates, monosodium glutamate, or MSG), environmental
additives (fertilizers, pesticides), and cleaning agents (sanitizers, lubricants). High
levels of toxic chemicals may cause acute cases of foodborne illness, while chronic
illness may result from lower levels.

Create a HACCP Plan 153

STAR KNOWLEDGE EXERCISE: BIOLOGICAL
CONTAMINATION—KEVIN’S STORY

Answer the question at the end of this story on prevention, using your knowledge of biological
hazards and the Biological Hazards Chart located on pages 151–152.


Dedicated to Patricia Buck and her grandson, Kevin Kowalcyk

Controlling biological hazards can make a difference in the health and lives of all people around the world.
However, someday you may meet a person who has experienced a tragedy as a result of a foodborne ill-
ness. It might be your child, your neighbor, your customer, or even yourself.

Patricia Buck is a Grove City, Pennsylvania grandmother, whose two-and-a-half-year-old grandson Kevin
Kowalcyk became a statistic because of his death from E. coli 0157:H7 in 2001. Since that precious child
was more than a statistic to her, Patricia Buck crusaded for food safety issues by trying to get laws
passed to enforce safety and standards in meat and poultry plants in the United States. It’s important to
Patricia Buck that HACCP is mandated. She has personally thanked food safety trainers (including Tara
Paster, this book’s author) for teaching food employees about the importance of doing their jobs right.
Watching an innocent child suffer for 12 days as the E. coli ravaged his body, resulting in a painful, horri-
fying death, should not be what happens to someone who has eaten a hamburger.

According to the Biological Hazards Chart, what control measures could have prevented this senseless
death? _____________________________________________________________________________________

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Time/temperature control for safety of
food (TCS) (cont.)

reheating, 62–64
temperature danger zone, 50–54
thawing foods, 54
thorough cooking of foods, 54–57
water activity for growth of

pathogens, 278
water activity of foods, 279

Time-Temperature Log, 255
Titratable acidity, 43, 194, 195
Total quality management (TQM)

strategies, xxi
Toxic mushrooms, 154
Toxigenic microorganisms, defined, 307
Toxins, 150

defined, 307
and toxin-mediated infections, 150

Toxin-mediated infections, 150
Toxoplasmosis, 19
TQM (total quality management)

strategies, xxi
Traceability, contamination, 145
Tracking (for food safety), 145, 199
Training:

in food defense, 104, 114–116
in food safety, xiv–xv
for temperature control, 206

Transmissible spongiform
encephalopathies (TSEs), 296

Trichinella spiralis, 152
Trichinosis, 19
TSEs (transmissible spongiform

encephalopathies), 296
Tuna Melt Sandwich, 170
Two-stage cooling, 60
Typhoid fever, see Salmonellosis

(salmonella)

U
UL seals of approval, 5
Uniforms, 109
United Nations, 143
U. S. Air Force Space Laboratory

Project Group, 145
U. S. Department of Agriculture

(USDA), 307
contact information, 135, 313
and destruction of recalled foods,

133
food defense responsibilities,

100–101
moisture-to-protein ratio

requirements, 195
and NACMCF, 146
SOP format, 9

United States Department of Health
and Human Services (HHS):

BSE/TSE action plan, 296
food defense responsibilities,

100–101
and NACMCF, 146

United States Department of
Homeland Security, 135, 310

United States Food and Drug
Administration (FDA). See also
FDA Model Food Code (2005)

contact information, 135, 310–312
and destruction of recalled foods,

133
food defense activities, 100
food recall form, 128–129
food recall notification report,

130–131
and Model Food Code, 147
and NACMCF, 146
regional offices, 311–312

Unsafe food, viii
USDA, see U. S. Department of

Agriculture
Utensils for handling foods, SOPs for,

38–39, 84–85
Utilities, securing access to, 109

V
Vacuum packaging (VP), 46, 47, 307
Validation, 216–219, 307
Validation Worksheet, 218–219
Variance, defined, 307
Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

(vCJD), 148, 294, 296–298
Vegetables, washing, 48–49, 86–87
Vegetative cell:

control of, 45
defined, 307

Vendor Awareness SOP, 114, 115
Verification (HACCP Principle 6),

216–229
confirmation in, 216, 217
defined, 307
HACCP Plan Verification Summary,

227
HACCP Plan Verification Worksheet,

224–227
validation in, 216–219
Verification Inspection Checklist,

220–223
Verification Inspection Checklist,

220–223
The Veterinary Laboratories Agency

(England), 295
Vibrio, 19, 152

328 Index

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Vietnamese Ministry of Health, 300
Viruses:

as biological hazards, 150–152
control of, 150–151
defined, 307

Viscosity, critical limits for, 194, 195
VP, see Vacuum packaging

W
WAFDO, see Western Association of

Food and Drug Officials
Washing fruits and vegetables, 48–49,

85–86
Washing hands, 32–33

recipe for, 32
situations requiring, 33
standard operating procedures for,

81–82
Waste/Shrink/Discard Chart, 263
Water, thawing foods in, 54
Water activity (aw), 45

critical limits for, 194–196
defined, 307
of foods, 279
for growth of pathogens, 278
interaction of pH values and, 44, 45

Water supply, security of, 109
Western Association of Food and Drug

Officials (WAFDO), 122, 309
WHO, see World Health Organization
Winter vomiting disease, see Norovirus
Withdrawal (as food recall

classification), 126

Wood (as physical hazards), 156
Working the plan, 193–213

establishing critical limits (HACCP
Principle 3), 194–198

for critical control points, 199
defined, 194

establishing monitoring procedures
(HACCP Principle 4), 199–204

continuous monitoring, 199
forms for, 201, 202
intermittent (noncontinuous)

monitoring, 200
standard operating procedures,

200, 201
identifying corrective actions

(HACCP Principle 5), 205–213
definition of corrective actions,

205
examples of, 205–206
and risk control plan, 208–212
SOPs for, 206–207

Working when ill, 31–32
World Health Organization (WHO), 102,

143, 298, 300

Y
Yersiniosis, 19

Z
Zoonotic disease, 307

Index 329

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